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In terms of Decent I still want a fair sized airgroup of 50+ planes in order to provide a reasonable offensive quality to the ship. Also I require the ship to be able to steam at 30+knots, though considering the number of 28knot cruisers I have, 28knots may be manageable.

Hök Class, Nordmark Carrier laid down 1934

Displacement:

16,932 t light; 17,445 t standard; 19,366 t normal; 20,904 t full load

Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught

673.10 ft / 650.00 ft x 79.00 ft x 24.00 ft (normal load)

205.16 m / 198.12 m x 24.08 m x 7.32 m

Armament:

16 - 4.33" / 110 mm guns (8x2 guns), 40.61lbs / 18.42kg shells, 1934 Model

Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists

on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring

32 - 1.46" / 37.0 mm guns (8x4 guns), 1.55lbs / 0.70kg shells, 1934 Model

Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts

on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring

32 - 0.79" / 20.0 mm guns (16x2 guns), 0.24lbs / 0.11kg shells, 1934 Model

Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts

on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts

Weight of broadside 707 lbs / 321 kg

Shells per gun, main battery: 300

Armour:

- Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg)

Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 480.00 ft / 146.30 m 11.00 ft / 3.35 m

Ends: Unarmoured

Upper: 1.50" / 38 mm 480.00 ft / 146.30 m 21.00 ft / 6.40 m

Main Belt covers 114 % of normal length

- Torpedo Bulkhead:

1.50" / 38 mm 480.00 ft / 146.30 m 21.00 ft / 6.40 m

- Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)

Main: 2.00" / 51 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm

2nd: 1.00" / 25 mm - -

3rd: 1.00" / 25 mm - -

- Armour deck: 3.25" / 83 mm, Conning tower: 4.00" / 102 mm

Machinery:

Oil fired boilers, steam turbines,

Geared drive, 4 shafts, 75,360 shp / 56,218 Kw = 29.00 kts

Range 11,000nm at 15.00 kts

Bunker at max displacement = 3,459 tons

Complement:

820 - 1,067

Cost:

£4.764 million / $19.055 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:

Armament: 88 tons, 0.5 %

Armour: 4,444 tons, 22.9 %

- Belts: 1,505 tons, 7.8 %

- Torpedo bulkhead: 559 tons, 2.9 %

- Armament: 74 tons, 0.4 %

- Armour Deck: 2,243 tons, 11.6 %

- Conning Tower: 62 tons, 0.3 %

Machinery: 2,168 tons, 11.2 %

Hull, fittings & equipment: 7,032 tons, 36.3 %

Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,434 tons, 12.6 %

Miscellaneous weights: 3,200 tons, 16.5 %

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:

Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):

48,563 lbs / 22,028 Kg = 1,195.8 x 4.3 " / 110 mm shells or 7.2 torpedoes

Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.07

Metacentric height 4.0 ft / 1.2 m

Roll period: 16.6 seconds

Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 90 %

- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.18

Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 2.00

Hull form characteristics:

Hull has low quarterdeck

and transom stern

Block coefficient: 0.550

Length to Beam Ratio: 8.23 : 1

'Natural speed' for length: 29.38 kts

Power going to wave formation at top speed: 53 %

Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 45

Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 20.00 degrees

Stern overhang: 10.00 ft / 3.05 m

Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length):

- Stem: 36.00 ft / 10.97 m

- Forecastle (15 %): 34.00 ft / 10.36 m

- Mid (50 %): 34.00 ft / 10.36 m

- Quarterdeck (20 %): 27.00 ft / 8.23 m (34.00 ft / 10.36 m before break)

- Stern: 27.00 ft / 8.23 m

- Average freeboard: 32.72 ft / 9.97 m

Ship space, strength and comments:

Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 79.3 %

- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 294.7 %

Waterplane Area: 37,309 Square feet or 3,466 Square metres

Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 153 %

Structure weight / hull surface area: 109 lbs/sq ft or 531 Kg/sq metre

Hull strength (Relative):

- Cross-sectional: 0.88

- Longitudinal: 2.99

- Overall: 1.00

Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent

Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform

Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

1 ship Built-Hök

Can carry 50 aircraft

Design J is closest to 17500tons

J (with armoured flight deck)

600ft 84ft 22

17,000 tons std

20.000 deep

66,000 shp

3 shafts 28kts

Endurance 10000 nm at 12kts

2*twin 5.25in

4*8 barrel pom poms

24 TSR (hanger capacity)

660 by 84 flight deck

436*60*16 hanger

Lifts 45*22

40000 gallons of petrol

180*500lb bombs

150*250lb bombs

£3 million

Designs f and J had 2.5in NC steel flight deck covering full width of Flight deck and 400/480ft respectively in length (covering full hangers in both and then extending aft beyond). Both had 2in forward bulkhead. For an extra 600 tons design J could have a 3in flightdeck. All NC.

For F and J Belt 4.5in C armour covering Mags and machinery which ran from HD to 3.5 ft below waterline. Reducing this belt to 3in would save 220 tons and £45000.

Shes slower, less heavily armed and carries far fewer aircraft. Probably around 40 ac with a deckpark. Serious limitations with fuel and ordnance stowage.

You actually need flight deck armour plus armour lower in the ship, else you have very little defense against shellfire.

JA

3 in flight deck, 2in deck armour over machinery, displaced 17,800tons for 28.75kts boilers forced. For an extra £130000

JB

3in flighdeck extended just over the width of hanger only, with 4.5in CA carried all the way up to the hanger deck from mags to machinery and back to mags. Hangers covered by 3in NC with hanger deck covered in 1.75in NC over mags and machinery. Displaced 17,560 tons for an extra £110,000.

JC

3in flight deck covers full width of flight deck, 3in NC hanger deck over vitals and 1in hanger sides. Displaced 17,890 tons and had 2ft extra beam in compensation (+£170,000).

JD

As JC with 4.5in belt extended over entire hanger sides. The protected area of flighdeck was reduced from 480ft (JA JC) to 436ft. Displacement 18,370 tons, 80.000shp for 27.75 kts. (+£250.000)

Design M

LBP (ft) 600

LWL (ft) 625

LOA (ft) 650

BEXT (ft) 88

17,440 tons std

22.9ft draught 26.9 deep

Flight deck freeboard 41.8ft

Shp 102,000 shafts 3 for 29.75 kts

Feul 4000tons for 12,000nm at 14kts

1000 complement

25.000gallons of petrol

8 * 4.5 in guns arranged in twin BD mounts superfiring fore and aft of island

2 * 8 barral pompoms

Aircraft 18 hanger plus 6 deck park

Protection

4.5in side C

2.5in Bulkhead NC

1in D hanger bulkhead

Deck 3in

Flight deck 3in

Design N

LBP (ft) 650

LWL (ft) 675

LOA (ft) 700

BEXT (ft) 83

16,500 tons std

19.6ft draught 23.6 deep

Flight deck freeboard 43.9ft

Shp 100,000 shafts 4 for 30.5 kts

Feul 3500tons for 10,000nm at 14kts

1000 complement

28.000gallons of petrol

8 * 4.5 in guns arranged in twin BD mounts superfiring fore and aft of island

4 * 8 barral pompoms

Aircraft 20 hanger plus 6 deck park (note old type)

Protection

3.5in side C

1.5in Bulkhead NC

1in D hanger bulkhead

Deck 2in

Flight deck 2.5in

Stearing 2.5in

Underwater 750lb

## Quoted

The major problem I think is that to actually sim the deck armour as the flight deck you must have the freeboard at that level for the entire length of the armoured flight deck, so that the stability can be taken into account.

Not quite. Use your engineering skills and do a few moment calculations

Hök Class, Nordmark Carrier laid down 1934

Displacement:

17,112 t light; 17,601 t standard; 19,517 t normal; 21,050 t full load

Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught

621.10 ft / 600.00 ft x 90.00 ft x 23.00 ft (normal load)

189.31 m / 182.88 m x 27.43 m x 7.01 m

Armament:

12 - 4.33" / 110 mm guns (6x2 guns), 40.61lbs / 18.42kg shells, 1934 Model

Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists

on side ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts - superfiring

32 - 1.46" / 37.0 mm guns (8x4 guns), 1.55lbs / 0.70kg shells, 1934 Model

Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts

on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring

32 - 0.79" / 20.0 mm guns (16x2 guns), 0.24lbs / 0.11kg shells, 1934 Model

Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts

on side, evenly spread, all raised mounts

Weight of broadside 545 lbs / 247 kg

Shells per gun, main battery: 300

Armour:

- Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg)

Main: 4.00" / 102 mm 480.00 ft / 146.30 m 11.00 ft / 3.35 m

Ends: Unarmoured

Upper: 1.50" / 38 mm 480.00 ft / 146.30 m 21.00 ft / 6.40 m

Main Belt covers 123 % of normal length

- Torpedo Bulkhead:

1.50" / 38 mm 480.00 ft / 146.30 m 21.00 ft / 6.40 m

- Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)

Main: 2.00" / 51 mm 1.00" / 25 mm 1.00" / 25 mm

2nd: 1.00" / 25 mm - -

3rd: 1.00" / 25 mm - -

- Armour deck: 1.50" / 38 mm, Conning tower: 4.00" / 102 mm

Machinery:

Oil fired boilers, steam turbines,

Geared drive, 4 shafts, 83,938 shp / 62,618 Kw = 29.50 kts

Range 11,000nm at 15.00 kts

Bunker at max displacement = 3,450 tons

Complement:

825 - 1,073

Cost:

£4.881 million / $19.522 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:

Armament: 68 tons, 0.3 %

Armour: 3,270 tons, 16.8 %

- Belts: 1,503 tons, 7.7 %

- Torpedo bulkhead: 559 tons, 2.9 %

- Armament: 57 tons, 0.3 %

- Armour Deck: 1,089 tons, 5.6 %

- Conning Tower: 62 tons, 0.3 %

Machinery: 2,415 tons, 12.4 %

Hull, fittings & equipment: 6,159 tons, 31.6 %

Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2,405 tons, 12.3 %

Miscellaneous weights: 5,200 tons, 26.6 %

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:

Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):

35,140 lbs / 15,939 Kg = 865.3 x 4.3 " / 110 mm shells or 5.6 torpedoes

Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.16

Metacentric height 5.6 ft / 1.7 m

Roll period: 15.9 seconds

Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 57 %

- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.05

Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.27

Hull form characteristics:

Hull has raised forecastle

and transom stern

Block coefficient: 0.550

Length to Beam Ratio: 6.67 : 1

'Natural speed' for length: 28.75 kts

Power going to wave formation at top speed: 58 %

Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 45

Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 20.00 degrees

Stern overhang: 8.00 ft / 2.44 m

Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length):

- Stem: 36.00 ft / 10.97 m

- Forecastle (10 %): 34.00 ft / 10.36 m (25.00 ft / 7.62 m aft of break)

- Mid (50 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m

- Quarterdeck (20 %): 25.00 ft / 7.62 m

- Stern: 25.00 ft / 7.62 m

- Average freeboard: 25.98 ft / 7.92 m

Ship space, strength and comments:

Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 93.7 %

- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 226.5 %

Waterplane Area: 39,235 Square feet or 3,645 Square metres

Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 141 %

Structure weight / hull surface area: 112 lbs/sq ft or 545 Kg/sq metre

Hull strength (Relative):

- Cross-sectional: 0.94

- Longitudinal: 1.76

- Overall: 1.00

Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate

Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

1 ship Built-Hök

Misc weight of 5200tons is

3000tons-50 Aircraft

2200tons is 3inch flight deck armour, over an area of 450ft by 65ft

Stability with 3inch flight deck armour 450ft by 65ft = stabilty -0.08 therefore true stability is 1.08.

## Quoted

Am unsure how the armour simmed as misc weight affects the survivability though.

I assumed that it didn't. Its not in a position to do anything. misc weight takes up volume which is what affects the survivability calcs. The deck armour is essentially a lamina and should have no effect apart from on stability.

## Quoted

Seriously. What engineering skills, I only just passed the module dealing with Statics and Dynmanics.

and here's me hoping that you'd be able to step in when I went on to talk about bending moments.

A not so brief introduction to stability in ships that is a good starting point.

I'll just give you the simple calculations that I did rather than go into more complicated loading diagrams.

Please explain how this affects your calculations (center of gravity, center of buoyancy) that finally lead to your modified SS sheet. Thanks.

Open up SS with your carrier design. Set an arbitary value as the misc weight, say 5000tons. Look at the difference in stability between 0tons misc weight and 1000tons. Say this difference is 0.10. Now we calculate the moment arm of that misc weight.

misc weight x (freeboard (box 9) - metacentric height) as metacentric height is essentially the centre of buoyancy.

so 5000 x 8m = 40,000 ton m which corresponds to a drop in stability of 0.10 or 0.01 per 4,000ton m

Now say we want to armour our flight deck. Work out how much it weighs first, area*thickness*7.84. Say a figure of 3000tons

This is really where you need a drawing so you can see where your flight deck is located. e.g. 15m

do the same calculation again

armour deck weight x (flight deck height - GM)

3000 x 15m = 45,000 ton m

as we worked out above, the ship loses 0.01 for every 4000ton m so with the 3000ton armour deck 15m up the ship will lose 0.11 points of stability.

Its really not that hard to do.

For survivability ratings I'm assuming the flight deck armour has no effect as it has negligible volume. So misc weight - armour deck weight and look at the shellfire and torpedoes to sink.

I've just had an idea with regards to stability of the skegs. Use them to store fuel oil. It gives them more protection as the blast from a torpedo is dissapated more and when flooded the ship's attitude won't change much as specific gravity of oil is around 0.90 - 0.95 compared to 1.00 of water

## Quoted

The Naval Planning Committee would have to be convinced that the threat that it faces will be more from dive bombers than from other sources.

Well Italy has some experience in level bombing with D'Annunzio's raids on AH warships with Caproni bombers. These were moderately succesful and show promise for the future. Reports of dive bombing from Germany and Russia indicate that it is significantly more accurate but isn't as powerful a means of weapons delivery. Skip bombing seems better to RA pilots as a means of delivery as it gives a more normal parabolic flight path and allows the use of AP shells as a baseline.

I don't see why an armoured flight deck isn't useful against level bombers. If they make a run at 4000m or so then you're not going to be able to intercept them with fighters. An continuous CAP would place too much strain on the pilots and planes. Radar and higher performance planes make level bombing attacks less likely to succeed.

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