Bulgaria is currently planning to build six to eight destroyers to the Z-214 design, enough to outfit a full squadron of two four-ship divisions. But after the *Pazardzhiks* are done, I want another class which preferably isn't foreign-designed.

The requirements were as follows:

- Under 2,500 tons weight

- At least 33 knots speed

- 4-6 125mm guns

- 4-8 600mm torpedoes.

- Ability to add extra weight for minelaying purposes

Accordingly, two designs have been prepared. One emphasizes the traditional destroyer role, and while it has the extra weight added for mines, it also has a transom stern. (I'm naughty, yes.) The second design drops the transom for better minelaying capabilities.

The ships are based fairly heavily off the German Type-36 destroyers.

Design 39-A: Transom, also armoured deck

Design 39-B: No Transom, no armoured deck

Opinions?

The requirements were as follows:

- Under 2,500 tons weight

- At least 33 knots speed

- 4-6 125mm guns

- 4-8 600mm torpedoes.

- Ability to add extra weight for minelaying purposes

Accordingly, two designs have been prepared. One emphasizes the traditional destroyer role, and while it has the extra weight added for mines, it also has a transom stern. (I'm naughty, yes.) The second design drops the transom for better minelaying capabilities.

The ships are based fairly heavily off the German Type-36 destroyers.

Design 39-A: Transom, also armoured deck

Design 39-B: No Transom, no armoured deck

## Quoted

Drazki (DD39-A), Bulgarian Heavy Destroyer laid down 1939

Displacement:

2,175 t light; 2,263 t standard; 2,507 t normal; 2,703 t full load

Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught

381.43 ft / 375.00 ft x 40.00 ft x 15.00 ft (normal load)

116.26 m / 114.30 m x 12.19 m x 4.57 m

Armament:

5 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1939 Model

Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists

on centreline ends, majority aft, 3 raised mounts - superfiring

8 - 1.46" / 37.0 mm guns (4x2 guns), 1.55lbs / 0.70kg shells, 1939 Model

Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts

on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring

16 - 0.79" / 20.0 mm guns (1x16 guns), 0.24lbs / 0.11kg shells, 1939 Model

Machine guns in deck mount

on side

Weight of broadside 329 lbs / 149 kg

Shells per gun, main battery: 200

8 - 23.6" / 599.44 mm above water torpedoes

Armour:

- Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)

Main: 1.18" / 30 mm 0.59" / 15 mm 0.59" / 15 mm

2nd: 0.39" / 10 mm 0.39" / 10 mm -

3rd: 0.39" / 10 mm - -

- Armour deck: 0.79" / 20 mm, Conning tower: 0.98" / 25 mm

Machinery:

Oil fired boilers, steam turbines,

Geared drive, 2 shafts, 44,765 shp / 33,395 Kw = 34.00 kts

Range 5,000nm at 15.00 kts

Bunker at max displacement = 440 tons

Complement:

176 - 230

Cost:

£1.537 million / $6.146 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:

Armament: 41 tons, 1.6 %

Armour: 162 tons, 6.4 %

- Belts: 0 tons, 0.0 %

- Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 %

- Armament: 19 tons, 0.8 %

- Armour Deck: 139 tons, 5.5 %

- Conning Tower: 4 tons, 0.2 %

Machinery: 1,096 tons, 43.7 %

Hull, fittings & equipment: 726 tons, 28.9 %

Fuel, ammunition & stores: 333 tons, 13.3 %

Miscellaneous weights: 150 tons, 6.0 %

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:

Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):

813 lbs / 369 Kg = 13.0 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 0.4 torpedoes

Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.10

Metacentric height 1.5 ft / 0.5 m

Roll period: 13.6 seconds

Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 74 %

- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.50

Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.12

Hull form characteristics:

Hull has rise forward of midbreak

and transom stern

Block coefficient: 0.390

Length to Beam Ratio: 9.38 : 1

'Natural speed' for length: 22.56 kts

Power going to wave formation at top speed: 67 %

Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 66

Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 15.00 degrees

Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m

Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length):

- Stem: 24.00 ft / 7.32 m

- Forecastle (20 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m

- Mid (50 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m (14.50 ft / 4.42 m aft of break)

- Quarterdeck (15 %): 14.50 ft / 4.42 m

- Stern: 14.50 ft / 4.42 m

- Average freeboard: 17.57 ft / 5.36 m

Ship space, strength and comments:

Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 160.8 %

- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 94.2 %

Waterplane Area: 9,531 Square feet or 885 Square metres

Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 82 %

Structure weight / hull surface area: 38 lbs/sq ft or 188 Kg/sq metre

Hull strength (Relative):

- Cross-sectional: 0.48

- Longitudinal: 2.32

- Overall: 0.56

Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped

Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform

## Quoted

Drazki (DD39-B), Bulgarian Heavy Destroyer laid down 1939

Displacement:

2,151 t light; 2,240 t standard; 2,500 t normal; 2,708 t full load

Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught

381.43 ft / 375.00 ft x 40.00 ft x 15.00 ft (normal load)

116.26 m / 114.30 m x 12.19 m x 4.57 m

Armament:

5 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1939 Model

Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists

on centreline ends, majority aft, 3 raised mounts - superfiring

8 - 1.46" / 37.0 mm guns (4x2 guns), 1.55lbs / 0.70kg shells, 1939 Model

Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts

on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring

16 - 0.79" / 20.0 mm guns (1x16 guns), 0.24lbs / 0.11kg shells, 1939 Model

Machine guns in deck mount

on side

Weight of broadside 329 lbs / 149 kg

Shells per gun, main battery: 200

8 - 23.6" / 599.44 mm above water torpedoes

Armour:

- Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)

Main: 1.18" / 30 mm 0.59" / 15 mm 0.59" / 15 mm

2nd: 0.39" / 10 mm 0.39" / 10 mm -

3rd: 0.39" / 10 mm - -

- Conning tower: 0.98" / 25 mm

Machinery:

Oil fired boilers, steam turbines,

Geared drive, 2 shafts, 54,167 shp / 40,408 Kw = 34.00 kts

Range 5,000nm at 15.00 kts

Bunker at max displacement = 469 tons

Complement:

176 - 229

Cost:

£1.658 million / $6.631 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:

Armament: 41 tons, 1.6 %

Armour: 23 tons, 0.9 %

- Belts: 0 tons, 0.0 %

- Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 %

- Armament: 19 tons, 0.8 %

- Armour Deck: 0 tons, 0.0 %

- Conning Tower: 4 tons, 0.2 %

Machinery: 1,251 tons, 50.0 %

Hull, fittings & equipment: 687 tons, 27.5 %

Fuel, ammunition & stores: 349 tons, 13.9 %

Miscellaneous weights: 150 tons, 6.0 %

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:

Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):

595 lbs / 270 Kg = 9.5 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 0.3 torpedoes

Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.16

Metacentric height 1.7 ft / 0.5 m

Roll period: 13.0 seconds

Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 75 %

- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.48

Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.13

Hull form characteristics:

Hull has rise forward of midbreak

Block coefficient: 0.389

Length to Beam Ratio: 9.38 : 1

'Natural speed' for length: 19.36 kts

Power going to wave formation at top speed: 67 %

Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 66

Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 15.00 degrees

Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m

Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length):

- Stem: 24.00 ft / 7.32 m

- Forecastle (20 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m

- Mid (50 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m (14.50 ft / 4.42 m aft of break)

- Quarterdeck (15 %): 14.50 ft / 4.42 m

- Stern: 14.50 ft / 4.42 m

- Average freeboard: 17.57 ft / 5.36 m

Ship space, strength and comments:

Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 181.0 %

- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 90.7 %

Waterplane Area: 9,180 Square feet or 853 Square metres

Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 73 %

Structure weight / hull surface area: 37 lbs/sq ft or 179 Kg/sq metre

Hull strength (Relative):

- Cross-sectional: 0.44

- Longitudinal: 2.18

- Overall: 0.52

Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped

Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform

Opinions?

## Quoted

Drazki (DD39-A), Bulgarian Heavy Destroyer laid down 1939

Displacement:

2,264 t light; 2,354 t standard; 2,604 t normal; 2,803 t full load

Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught

381.43 ft / 375.00 ft x 40.50 ft x 15.00 ft (normal load)

116.26 m / 114.30 m x 12.34 m x 4.57 m

Armament:

5 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1939 Model

Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists

on centreline ends, majority aft, 3 raised mounts - superfiring

8 - 1.46" / 37.0 mm guns (4x2 guns), 1.55lbs / 0.70kg shells, 1939 Model

Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts

on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring

16 - 0.79" / 20.0 mm guns (1x16 guns), 0.24lbs / 0.11kg shells, 1939 Model

Machine guns in deck mount

on side

Weight of broadside 329 lbs / 149 kg

Shells per gun, main battery: 200

8 - 23.6" / 599.44 mm above water torpedoes

Armour:

- Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)

Main: 1.18" / 30 mm 0.59" / 15 mm 0.59" / 15 mm

2nd: 0.39" / 10 mm 0.39" / 10 mm -

3rd: 0.39" / 10 mm - -

- Armour deck: 0.79" / 20 mm, Conning tower: 0.98" / 25 mm

Machinery:

Oil fired boilers, steam turbines,

Geared drive, 2 shafts, 46,205 shp / 34,469 Kw = 34.00 kts

Range 5,000nm at 15.00 kts

Bunker at max displacement = 449 tons

Complement:

181 - 236

Cost:

£1.592 million / $6.369 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:

Armament: 41 tons, 1.6 %

Armour: 164 tons, 6.3 %

- Belts: 0 tons, 0.0 %

- Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 %

- Armament: 19 tons, 0.7 %

- Armour Deck: 141 tons, 5.4 %

- Conning Tower: 4 tons, 0.2 %

Machinery: 1,142 tons, 43.9 %

Hull, fittings & equipment: 766 tons, 29.4 %

Fuel, ammunition & stores: 340 tons, 13.0 %

Miscellaneous weights: 150 tons, 5.8 %

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:

Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):

878 lbs / 398 Kg = 14.0 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 0.4 torpedoes

Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.11

Metacentric height 1.6 ft / 0.5 m

Roll period: 13.5 seconds

Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 70 %

- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.46

Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.07

Hull form characteristics:

Hull has rise forward of midbreak

and transom stern

Block coefficient: 0.400

Length to Beam Ratio: 9.26 : 1

'Natural speed' for length: 22.55 kts

Power going to wave formation at top speed: 67 %

Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 66

Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 15.00 degrees

Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m

Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length):

- Stem: 24.00 ft / 7.32 m

- Forecastle (20 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m

- Mid (50 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m (14.50 ft / 4.42 m aft of break)

- Quarterdeck (15 %): 14.50 ft / 4.42 m

- Stern: 14.50 ft / 4.42 m

- Average freeboard: 17.57 ft / 5.36 m

Ship space, strength and comments:

Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 160.6 %

- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 94.2 %

Waterplane Area: 9,702 Square feet or 901 Square metres

Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 83 %

Structure weight / hull surface area: 40 lbs/sq ft or 197 Kg/sq metre

Hull strength (Relative):

- Cross-sectional: 0.50

- Longitudinal: 2.33

- Overall: 0.59

Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped

Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform

Deck armor- OTL, occurred in some American designs as an anti-strafing element, but they only used 1/2" and had some side armor to complement it. I get stuck thinking 'citadel', it bugs me that you have critical elements above the waterline, so the armor deck above those, but are vulnerable to side shots between waterline and deck.

Also, are Bulgarian sailors particularly short? I ask because the raised forcastle is only 5.5 feet above the next deck, and there would be pipes and support elements and all.

## Quoted

Originally posted by Kaiser Kirk

Overall it seems good. I don't see any major flaws, except I worry that the feed mechanism on the 20mm mount may be overly complex and prone to breakage, plus the train rate may not be good. Why not simple have them in single and twin mounts?

Deck armor- OTL, occurred in some American designs as an anti-strafing element, but they only used 1/2" and had some side armor to complement it. I get stuck thinking 'citadel', it bugs me that you have critical elements above the waterline, so the armor deck above those, but are vulnerable to side shots between waterline and deck.

Also, are Bulgarian sailors particularly short? I ask because the raised forcastle is only 5.5 feet above the next deck, and there would be pipes and support elements and all.

The 20mm is supposed to be in eight twins, and I found that error since I last posted it. The change has now been made.

Regarding armor, I mostly added it since I had a bit of weight to burn. Regarding forecastle... I didn't consider that. Let's try this instead...

## Quoted

Drazki (DD39-A), Bulgarian Heavy Destroyer laid down 1939

Displacement:

2,294 t light; 2,385 t standard; 2,636 t normal; 2,837 t full load

Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught

381.43 ft / 375.00 ft x 41.00 ft x 15.00 ft (normal load)

116.26 m / 114.30 m x 12.50 m x 4.57 m

Armament:

5 - 5.00" / 127 mm guns in single mounts, 62.50lbs / 28.35kg shells, 1939 Model

Dual purpose guns in deck mounts with hoists

on centreline ends, majority aft, 3 raised mounts - superfiring

8 - 1.46" / 37.0 mm guns (4x2 guns), 1.55lbs / 0.70kg shells, 1939 Model

Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts

on side, all amidships, all raised mounts - superfiring

16 - 0.79" / 20.0 mm guns (8x2 guns), 0.24lbs / 0.11kg shells, 1939 Model

Machine guns in deck mounts

on side, evenly spread

Weight of broadside 329 lbs / 149 kg

Shells per gun, main battery: 200

8 - 23.6" / 599.44 mm above water torpedoes

Armour:

- Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg)

Main: 0.51" / 13 mm 243.77 ft / 74.30 m 7.64 ft / 2.33 m

Ends: Unarmoured

Main Belt covers 100 % of normal length

Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces

- Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)

Main: 1.18" / 30 mm 0.59" / 15 mm 0.59" / 15 mm

2nd: 0.39" / 10 mm 0.39" / 10 mm -

3rd: 0.39" / 10 mm - -

- Armour deck: 0.51" / 13 mm, Conning tower: 0.79" / 20 mm

Machinery:

Oil fired boilers, steam turbines,

Geared drive, 2 shafts, 46,577 shp / 34,746 Kw = 34.00 kts

Range 5,000nm at 15.00 kts

Bunker at max displacement = 452 tons

Complement:

183 - 239

Cost:

£1.614 million / $6.455 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:

Armament: 41 tons, 1.6 %

Armour: 155 tons, 5.9 %

- Belts: 40 tons, 1.5 %

- Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 %

- Armament: 19 tons, 0.7 %

- Armour Deck: 93 tons, 3.5 %

- Conning Tower: 3 tons, 0.1 %

Machinery: 1,161 tons, 44.1 %

Hull, fittings & equipment: 806 tons, 30.6 %

Fuel, ammunition & stores: 342 tons, 13.0 %

Miscellaneous weights: 130 tons, 4.9 %

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:

Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):

954 lbs / 433 Kg = 15.3 x 5.0 " / 127 mm shells or 0.4 torpedoes

Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.16

Metacentric height 1.7 ft / 0.5 m

Roll period: 13.1 seconds

Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 69 %

- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.43

Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.14

Hull form characteristics:

Hull has rise forward of midbreak

and transom stern

Block coefficient: 0.400

Length to Beam Ratio: 9.15 : 1

'Natural speed' for length: 22.57 kts

Power going to wave formation at top speed: 68 %

Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 60

Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 15.00 degrees

Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m

Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length):

- Stem: 24.00 ft / 7.32 m

- Forecastle (20 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m

- Mid (50 %): 22.00 ft / 6.71 m (14.50 ft / 4.42 m aft of break)

- Quarterdeck (15 %): 14.50 ft / 4.42 m

- Stern: 14.50 ft / 4.42 m

- Average freeboard: 18.41 ft / 5.61 m

Ship space, strength and comments:

Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 160.1 %

- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 100.5 %

Waterplane Area: 9,822 Square feet or 912 Square metres

Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 84 %

Structure weight / hull surface area: 41 lbs/sq ft or 200 Kg/sq metre

Hull strength (Relative):

- Cross-sectional: 0.50

- Longitudinal: 2.68

- Overall: 0.59

Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped

Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

I cut the deck to 13mm, added a belt, and removed 20 tons of misc weight to keep hull strength high enough.

Would it be better to skip the deck and belt armour entirely, and increase the armour on the guns to 40-50mm?

From little bits read here and there, the face of the gun mounts is sufficient to stop most splinters, and virtually all from light hits. The "other" and barbette armor is a little on the lighter side, another 5mm would be nice, but overall this combo helps keep your main battery in action against common threats. Adding more probably would not help greatly, while reducing your train rates.

For the other armor, it does not seem to have been common on destroyers. I have at least one source that gives 0.75" belt and .5" over the machinery for the Fletcher class, my understanding is for protection from strafing etc. That doesn't sound entirely unreasonable, you have a high air threat, your value/unit is relatively high, the question always comes down to what else you could do, or if making the ship smaller instead would have an advantage. That is a value jugdement for Bulgaria to make

Hmm, Ive got bigger guns, but you`ve got bigger and twice as many torpedos, as well as being 1 knot faster, and have some modicum of belt and deck protection that the Romanian big destroyers don`t have.

AA gun`s are better, though Romania has the larger airforce of the two nations, and in a fight with Bulgaria has less of an aerial threat to worry about. Romania`s vr31 class has nearly a third more of broadside coming at the Bulgarians, and while the vr31 is vulnerable to the Bulgarian`s 5in, the Bulgarians are also vulnerable to the Romanian 5.9in. Ill give this a toss-up, between the two.

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