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Tuesday, July 19th 2016, 9:47pm

RAF Specifications 1948

As is customary for Q3 of a year, the annual look ahead at what is cooking in the minds of the Air Staff and what requirements will soon be winging its way to the aircraft manufacturers who will soon be scribbling furiously on drawing boards and calculating on slide rules.

B.9/48: Issued to BCAC to cover the Type 660 bomber selected as the interim winner of B.35/46.

B.21/48: Issued to BCAC for a target marker variant of the Type 660 which will overfly target at 5,000ft at high speed. First flight planned 1950 with service entry in 1951.

E.1/48: Issued to Bevan Bros. Aeronautical Engineers Ltd. for research into ramjet-powered helicopter rotor blades and manufacture of a test rotor and hub for mounting on a light helicopter.

E.6/48: Issued to Handley Page to cover a flying model of the H.P.80 tender to B.35/46 to carry out research into crescent shape wings and T-tail configurations, the scale model being designated H.P.88.

E.7/48: Issued for a jet-powered target aircraft drone.

E.15/48: Issued to Avro for three one-third scale flying prototypes of the Type 698 tender to B.35/46 one for high-speed and two for low-speed research. The scale prototype design is designated Type 707.

E.16/48: Issued to Fairey for a five-seat compound helicopter with two pusher rotors on stub wings and two tip-jet rotors powered by a 520hp Leonides radial engine based on the Gyrodyne as the Jet Gyrodyne.

F.3/48: A reissuing of Spec F.43/46 covering the analysis of changes made to the Hawker and BCAC submissions since 1946.
The contenders are;
BCAC (Bristol) Type 177; a new contender and three variants offered. The first, 177A, has two stacked reheated Avon mounted above and below mid-mounted wing with large nose intake, 56 degree swept wing, T-tail, two ADEN below intake with radar in centre bullet. 177B has side-by-side engines in a flatter fuselage and the 177C has solid nose with side intakes and a 65 degree swept wing.
Hawker P.1064; compared to the P.1054 aerodynamic refinement was not allowed to compromise a simple structure. The swept wings are fitted with simple straight-through spars and is now in the low-position. The AJ.65 Avon engines are moved to behind cockpit with side intakes and new T-tail fitted. Armament is three ADEN in nose.
Hawker P.1065; similar to the P.1064 but with cutback intakes and tail jet-pipe, only a single Avon would be fitted and provision for a 2,000lb Snarler rocket.
BCAC (Vickers) offers the Type 526, a de-navalised Type 525.

F.4/48: A reissuing of Spec F.44/46 covering the analysis of changes made to the AIRCO De Havilland DH.110 submission since 1946 and covering a production contract award for this aircraft.

H.10/48: Issued to Saro for a Crop Spraying variant of the W.11T Air Horse.

S.14/48: Issued to Fairey for the Widgeon helicopter in the air-sea rescue role.

T.12/48: Issued to BCAC for a conversion trainer variant of the W.38 Wyvern.

T.16/48: Issued to Percival to cover the P.84 Jet Provost trainer.

T.17/48: Issued to Fairey to cover trials of the Fairey Primer (Tipsy M) prototype G-AKSY in the basic training role.


Saturday, July 23rd 2016, 5:43pm


BCAC Commercial Airliners - Modernity Today

The BCAC design staffs at Filton and Weybridge have developed an outstanding range of airliners suited for all future requirements covering a range of stage-lengths and passenger capacity combined with the most modern innovations in turbine technology.

Type 167 BC.2 Britannia Series 200
This was the first of the Britannia series to be developed and flown. The BC.2 is the largest in terms of gross weight and was designed for very long Transatlantic and Transcontinental routes.
The Britannia was the first British airliner with full powered flying controls, electric engine controls and high-pressure hydraulics. A flight crew of four iss carried plus a cabin crew and up to 90 day passengers (61 is the most common arrangement on transatlantic routes) or 36 sleeper berths. The first prototype G-AGPW made its first flight on 4th September 1945 at Filton under the control of Chief Test Pilot A.J. Pegg. Today, BOAC is taking delivery of twenty of these aircraft, the first production airliner G-AKGH made its first commercial service in September 1947.
Span: 142ft 3in
Length: 124ft 3in
Height: 36ft 8in
Wing area: 2,075 sq ft
Loaded weight: 155,000lbs
Engines: 4x 5,000hp Bristol Twin Centaurus I 36-cylinder quad-row piston engines with superchargers
Max speed: 395mph
Cruising speed: 362mph
Maximum range: 4,828 miles
Service ceiling: 30,500ft

Type 167 BC.2 Britannia Series 210
The Series 210 takes the airframe of the Series 200 and marries it to four Armstrong Siddeley ASP.3 Python 3 propeller-turbine engines. The first 210 Series prototype, the third pre-production Series 200 aircraft G-AGRF, first flew on 22 July 1947 with the new engines. BOAC have 25 of these aircraft on order and the first will be delivered during 1949. BOAC also has expressed interest in a higher gross weight version with 99 passenger seats as the Series 215.
Span: 142ft 3in
Length: 124ft 3in
Height: 36ft 8in
Wing area: 2,075 sq ft
Loaded weight: 155,000lbs
Engines: 4x 3,670shp + 1,180lbs Armstrong Siddeley ASP.3 Python 3 propeller-turbines
Cruising speed: 357mph at 22,000ft
Maximum range: 4,600 miles
Service ceiling: 24,000ft

Type 175 BC.3 Britannia Series 110
The BC.3 shares the same airframeas the BC.2, with a shorter fuselage, but has been optimised for medium-range routes. The BC.3 uses the new Bristol Proteus propeller-turbines, one of the most powerful in the world at the current time. The first Series 110 prototype G-ALBO was first flown on 16 August 1947 by Chief Test Pilot A.J. Pegg at Filton. BOAC have ordered 25 Series 110 aircraft, which have the capacity to carry 74 passengers. The first aircraft will begin commercial services during spring 1949.
Span: 142ft 3in
Length: 114ft
Height: 36ft 8in
Wing area: 2,075 sq ft
Loaded weight: 115,000lbs
Engines: 4x 3,900shp Bristol Proteus II propeller-turbines
Max speed: 395mph
Cruising speed: 357mph at 20,000ft
Maximum range: 4,430 miles
Service ceiling: 24,000ft

Type 175 BC.3 Britannia Series 150
The Series 150 combines the airframe of the Series 210 with the Proteus engines and fuel system of the Series 110 to seat 139 passengers on high-demand routes. Current orders for this version include 30 for BEA and 18 for BOAC and commercial services should begin during 1950.
Span: 142ft 3in
Length: 124ft 3in
Height: 36ft 8in
Wing area: 2,075 sq ft
Loaded weight: 150,000lbs
Engines: 4x 4,120shp Bristol Proteus III propeller-turbines
Max speed: 397mph
Cruising speed: 357mph at 20,000ft
Maximum range: 4,200 miles
Service ceiling: 24,000ft

Type 175 BC.3 Britannia Series 300
The Series 300 is an all-cargo freighter version of the Series 150 with a forward fuselage cargo door. BOAC shall receive the first of five aircraft on order during 1949.
The RAF has also shown strong interest and the Series 301 is being developed to meet their needs and should enter service during 1950.

Type 630 VC.2 Viscount
Designed by Rex Pierson t Weybridge, this modern feederliner has been developed to cover the European air traffic and US air traffic markets. It is powered by four Rolls-Royce Dart turbine-propeller engines and has accommodation for 32 passengers in a pressurised cabin. The prototype, G-AHRF, was first flown on July 16 1947 by Joseph Summers. BEA ordered 20 Type 630s off the drawing board and commercial services should begin in August 1949.
Further development is the V.700 with a longer cabin for 48 passengers and extended-span wings which should fly during 1949 and enter commercial service in 1950.
Span: 89ft
Length: 74ft 6in
Height: 26ft 3in
Wing area: 885 sq ft
Maximum take-off weight: 45,000lbs
Engines: 4x 1,600shp + 370lb Rolls-Royce RB.53 Dart II propeller-turbines
Economic cruising speed: 310mph
Maximum range: 1,100 miles or 710 miles with full payload and reserves
Service ceiling: 23,750ft

Span: 983ft 8in
Length: 81ft 2in
Height: 26ft 9in
Wing area: 963 sq ft
Maximum take-off weight: 63,000lbs
Engines: 4x 1,740shp + 400lb Rolls-Royce RB.53 Dart III propeller-turbines
Max cruising speed: 324mph
Economic cruising speed: 310mph
Maximum range: 1,340 miles or 690 miles with full payload and reserves
Service ceiling: 25,000ft


Saturday, October 15th 2016, 12:49pm

The History of British Guided Weapons

BEN, devised by Flt. Lt. Benson of the Royal Aircraft Establishment in 1943. BEN is guided by a RDL Searchlight Controller 9X controlled-searchlight, the missile having four photoelectric cells on the wingtips, being tracked from 50ft altitude. The missile has two 3in solid-fuel cordite rockets, four control nozzles in the nose keeps the missile on track, accuracy is within 200ft of the target, when the 9X shows the missile and target in the same area the searchlight is switched off and the photoelectric cells trigger the warhead. Trials were made from Aberporth during 1945 but a proposed naval mount which fitted a launch rail to a standard searchlight was abandoned.

Brakemine, late in 1942 Lt. Sedgefield and Major Scott of REME conceived a beam-riding rocket (Guided Anti-Aircraft Projectile, GAP) and electrical engineers L.H. Bedford and S. Joffeh at Cossors Ltd. working on a similar scheme joined the programme which had the backing of the then G.O.C of AA Command, General Frederick Pile in 1943. The missile is powered by six 3in solid-fuel cordite rockets and launched from a modified 3.7in AA gun mounting with a rail replacing the gun. Control is by ‘twist and steer’ using the tailplanes differentially as ailerons and elevators. Guidance is by flying along the radio-beam from a modified RDF AA gun director. The first firings were made in September 1944 and were the first use of telemetry during guided-projectile trials. Although a reasonable success plans to introduce the type into service in 1947 with AA Command were abandoned.

Little Ben, in 1946 the Air Staff began looking at the possibility of developing an air-to-air GAP. Little Ben was based on Brakemine, the missile is powered by three 3in solid-fuel cordite rockets in a new streamlined body mid-body and tail fins (jettisoned on rocket burnout) with four small rudders and two ailerons on the nose. It was with fitted with the guidance system of Brakemine. Trials were made from 1947 as Long Shot to undertake development of aerodynamics and beam-guided control. Two Mosquito B.Mk.I aircraft were fitted with two underwing launch rails and an AI set and new nose from the night-fighter variant for the tests. The Telecommunications Research Establishment (TRE) at Malvern built all the Long Shot rockets.

CTV.1, developed from Long Shot in 1948 the CTV.1 (Component Test Vehicle) was unpowered and featured a new body with four rectangular wings and rudders and ailerons at the rear. Diameter was 5in (12.7cm) and length 5ft (1.52m). For launch it was boosted by three 3in solid-fuel cordite rockets for 10secs. The CTV.1 was developed to develop beam-riding control systems (AI.Mk.9 RDL). All were built by the TRE.

Fighter-Controlled Spaniel, developed from 1943 from the ground-launched Spaniel GAP. It was a basic 3in rocket projectile fitted with four lifting surfaces and four pop-out rudders and ailerons. Control was by command guidance via radio link, controlled by a RDF operator with a CRT display and a joystick, the missile return being ‘steered’ on the CRT into the target return. Range was 2,000 yards and speed 784mph speed. A Mosquito B.Mk.I aircraft was fitted with two underwing launch rails and an AI set in a modified new nose for the tests. Due to low accuracy and problems with gathering into the radio-beam (the time of flight was too quick for manual control) the trials were abandoned in 1944.

Artemis, a development of FC Spaniel by Flt. Lt. Benson of RAE during 1944. Simpler than FC Spaniel it only had four control surfaces and was uncontrolled in roll, the free rotating head being equipped with a radio-wave reflection signal seeker which rotated in an opposite direction to the body. The seeker had an oblique view and operated a deflection flap system to direct the missile on a curved course to the target. Although reasonably accurate the range was too short due to the reliance on the 3in cordite rocket and launch had to take place within the firing range of defensive guns on the target bomber. Trials ceased in 1946.

LOP/GAP, Isaac Lubbock of the Fuel Oil Technical Laboratory had co-operated with the Rocket Propulsion Establishment, Westcott (RPE) in developing a petrol/LOX rocket engine codenamed Lizzie during 1946. LOP/GAP was the culmination of Brakemine and Ben with both programmes effectively merged into one. The missile had six 3in solid-fuel cordite rockets as a booster unit and one Lizzie sustainer motor. Diameter is 9in (22.8cm) and length 16ft (4.87m); maximum speed M1.25. In 1947 the Air Staff called for a supersonic GAP with a ceiling of 40,000ft and the Admiralty were writing a similar requirement and the name Seaslug was applied to the naval version informally. As RAE continued work on LOP/GAP it became a research tool.

RTV.1, a development of LOP/GAP, essentially the same vehicle but with only one set of four control fins with differential control. To aid recovery over water the RTV.1 was fitted with a parachute recovery device. The RTV.1E was used for beam-riding trials from 1948 at Aberporth.

Red Hawk, in January 1945 the Air Staff issued OR.1056 for a collision-course air-to-air missile with either IR or RDF guidance. RAE research led to an unpowered dart design launched from the fighter by four strap-on boost motors by late 1947. By the summer of 1948 OR.1056 had been abandoned as too ambitious.

Green Lizard, during 1947 Dr. Barnes Wallis at BCAC (Vickers-Armstrongs) began work on a GAP equipped with flip-out variable-geometry wings, powered by a small turbojet and launched from a gun like a projectile. Trials were undertaken with a rocket-sled launched models with VG wings as Wild Goose, the first test was at RAE Thurleigh in 1950.

GWS.1 Seaslug, as LOP/GAP developed the RAE treated the type as a research type, but the Admiralty were keen to use it as an operational type and were informally calling the type Seaslug by 1947. Development was passed to Armstrong-Whitworth, Sperry Gyro and General Electric as Project 502. The configuration and engine changed to suit Naval requirements, the petrol/LOX rocket giving way to the kerosene/fuming nitric acid fuelled NK.1 engine and four solid-fuel rocket boosters were used for launch. Beam-riding guidance was fitted, using the new Type 901 set, based on the LRS-1 gunnery control director system.

Blue Sky, the failure of the ambitious Red Hawk led to the Ministry of Supply involving industry in the development process. OR.1088 was written in August 1948 for a beam-riding air-to-air missile, making use of the guidance systems of Little Ben and Long Shot and the missile layout of the RAE Red Hawk; an unpowered dart with two Stork wrap-around boost motors, with canted nozzles to impart spin to the missile. Length is 9.3ft (2.83m), weight 330lb (150kg). After launch the missile would accelerate to M2.4 in 2 seconds and after booster separation the dart would glide to the target, maximum range being 1.9 miles (3.05km). Guidance was beam-riding from the EKCO RDF, Ranging Mk.2 set in the fighter.

Popsy, the Admiralty issued requirement GD 81/48 in 1948 for a point defence naval surface-to-air missile and led to work beginning on Popsy by 1950.

[To be continued as IC timeline permits. All this should be considered OOC knowledge apart from some aspects of the historical stuff abandoned for future development.]


Saturday, March 25th 2017, 12:40pm

Updated list of British and Empire airlines.

State-Owned Airlines

British Overseas Airways Corporation B.O.A.C.

Current Fleet
19 Short S.32 Sandringham II
24 Avro 688 Tudor
24 Handley Page H.P.66 Hermes
20 Handley Page H.P.74 Hermes II
20 BCAC Type 167 BC.2 Britannia Series 200 (future deliveries: 25 Series 210 1949-50, 10 Series 215 1950-51)
BCAC Bristol Type 175 BC.3 Britannia Series 110 (future deliveries: 25 1949-50, 5 Series 300 1949-50, 18 Series 150 1950-52)
De Havilland DH.106 Comet 1 (future deliveries: 12 1949-51)
10 De Havilland D.H.95 Flamingo
6 D.H.95 Flamingo Mk.II
20 Miles Marathon
3 Short S.26 G Class
15 Short S.35 S Class
35 Short S.45 Solent
Services flown;
Poole-Foynes-Lisbon-Azores-Bermuda-Baltimore returning Bermuda-Lisbon-Poole four times weekly (flying boat)
Poole-Marignane-Valetta-Cairo-Habbaniya-Bharain-Jiwani-Karachi-Calicuta-Colombo-Rangoon-Sinagpore three times weekly (flying boat)
Poole-Marignane-Valetta-Cairo-Habbaniya-Bharain-Jiwani-Karachi three times weekly, this service connects with Qantas flying boat service to Australia (flying boat)
Croydon-Lydda-Karachi-Mumbai twice weekly
Croydon-Paris six times daily
Croydon-Paris-Brindisi-Athens-Alexandria-Cairo daily
Croydon-Lisbon-Safi-Cleito three times weekly
Croydon-Foynes shuttle flights for trans-Atlantic flying boat services when required
Cairo-Wadi Halfa-Khartoum-El Fasher-El Geneina-Maiduguri-Kano-Lagos twice weekly
Croydon-Lisbon-Gibraltar three times weekly
Cairo-Lydda-Baghdad-Basra three times weekly
Cairo-Luxor-Port Sudan-Aden three times weekly
Cairo-Nicosa-Ankara twice weekly
Cairo-Athens daily
Cairo-Damascus-Baghdad-Tehran three times weekly
Cairo-Port Sudan-Jeddah weekly
Cairo-Wadi Halfa-Khartoum-Malakal-Juba-Kisuma-Nairobi-Mombasa twice weekly
Cairo-Wadi Halfa-Khartoum-Malakal-Juba-Kisuma-Nairobi-Entebbe weekly
Cairo-Luxor-Wadi Halfa-Khartoum-Malakal-Juba-Kisuma-Nairobi-Kigali weekly
Cairo-Wadi Halfa-Khartoum-Jeddah-Kisuma-Mombasa-Dar es Salaam-Lindi-Maputo-Durban weekly (flying boat)
Lagos-Libreville-Luanda-Walvis Bay twice weekly (flying boat)
Rangoon-Mergui-Kuala Lumpur-Singapore three times weekly
Rangoon-Mergui-Kuala Lumpur-Singapore-Palembang-Jakarta three times weekly
Rangoon-Mergui-Kuala Lumpur-Singapore-Brunei twice weekly
Rangoon-Bangkok twice weekly
Rangoon-Pye-Mandalay-Myitkyina four times weekly
Rangoon-Mandalay-Kuming weekly
Singapore-Saigon-Hong Kong twice weekly (flying boat)
Bermuda-Nassau-Kingston-British Virgin Islands-St.Kitts & Nevis-Montserrat-Barbados twice weekly (flying boat)
Kingston-Bermuda-Baltimore weekly (flying boat)

British European Airways B.E.A.
Current Fleet
20 Avro 652D
8 Avro 685 York
45 Avro 689 Tudor II
BCAC Bristol Type 175 BC.3 Britannia Series 150 (future deliveries: 25 1950-51)
20 De Havilland D.H.95 Flamingo
20 D.H.95 Flamingo Mk II
50 BCAC VC.1 Viking
40 DH.97 Ambassador
BCAC Vickers Type 630 VC.2 Viscount (future deliveries: 20 1949-50, 20 V.700 1951)
50 Miles Marathon
Miles M.73 Herald (future delivery: 25 1949-51)
12 De Havilland D.H.89 Dragon Rapide
34 Avro 700 Ashton
6 H.P.77 Hampton (with Turbine Evaluation and Trials Unit)
Services flown;
Internal routes serve the following British airports; Gatwick (London), Heston, Rochford (Southend), Crawley, Brighton, Eastleigh (Southampton), Exeter, Cardiff, Bristol, Cambridge, Luton, Coventry, Birmingham, Speke (Liverpool), Blackpool, Manchester Ringway, Newcastle, Glasgow and Edinburgh.
Speke-Belfast four times daily
London-Speke-Dublin twice daily
London-Antwerp-Brussels twice daily
London-Brussels-Cologne-Basle-Zurich daily
London-Amsterdam three times daily
London-Brussels-Frankfurt-Berlin twice daily
London-Copenhagen daily
London-Milan-Rome daily
London-Coldmere-Oslo-Stockholm daily
London-Istres-Marseilles three times weekly
London-Paris-Stuttgart-Vienna-Belgrade-Athens daily
Luton-Hamburg three times a week
Bristol-Bordeaux-Madrid daily
Southend-Ostend three times daily summer and three times weekly winter
Ringway-London-Brussels-Frankfurt-Munich-Prague daily
Exeter-Brest-Bordeaux daily summer only
Brighton-Le Havre four times daily summer only
Edinburgh-Belfast twice daily
Edinburgh-Exeter-Dublin twice daily

British South American Airways B.S.A.A.
Formed in late 1942 as an independent branch of B.O.A.C. to serve the Caribbean and South America from Britain. The founding Director is former record-breaking Imperial Airways pilot Donald Bennett.
Current Fleet
19 Avro 685 York
7 Avro 688 Tudor
6 Avro 689 Tudor II
2 Avro 689 Tudor II freighters
10 H.P.70 Halton
1 Avro 652D
Services flown;
London-Bermuda non-stop three times weekly
London-Bermuda-Nassau-Kingston twice weekly
London-Cleito daily
London-Gaoth-Bermuda twice weekly
London-Gaoth-Bermuda-Kingston-Caracas twice weekly
London-Gaoth-Bermuda-Kingston-Bogota weekly
Kingston-Georgetown twice weekly
Kingston-Barbados daily
Kingston-Nassau-Bermuda-Halifax-Montreal twice weekly
Bermuda-Nassau-Kingston-Georgetown twice weekly

Falkland Islands Government Air Service, Port Stanley
Formed in 1945 to operate local flights between the islands and operated by Air Ministry crews.
Current Fleet
2 Miles M.57 Aerovan

Air Ministry Civil Flying Unit, Gatwick
Formed in 1942 to calibrate airport radio installations and provide pilots licencing and training on radio landing and navigation aids, instrument flying and blind-landing techniques.
Current Fleet
3 Airspeed AS.6 Envoy
6 Avro 652D
2 Cunliffe-Owen Concordia
1 BCAC VC.1 Viking

Independent Airlines

Aden Airways Limited

Established on 7 March 1949, as a wholly owned subsidiary of BOAC. It took over BOAC’s assets at Aden and scheduled operations were flown across the Arabian and Gulf region and into Sudan. On 1 February 1950, the aircraft were placed on the Aden (VR-A) register. Additional capacity for Hajj flights are handled by charters.
Current Fleet
6 DH.95 Flamingo Mk.II

Air Charters Ltd., Croydon Airport, London
A charter airline founded in 1947.
Current Fleet
2 DH.89 Dragon Rapide
1 Airspeed AS.6 Envoy

Airflight Ltd., Heathrow, London
A charter airline founded in 1948 by former Air Vice-Marshal Don Bennett to operate two Avro Tudor aircraft, both fitted as freighters. In 1949 the company was awarded government contracts for trooping charters to Egypt and ad hoc charters.
Current Fleet
2 Avro 711 Tudor III

Air Transport Charter (C.I.) Ltd., Jersey
A charter and cargo airline founded in 1947 to carry out passenger and cargo charters from the Channel Islands mainly to England.
Current Fleet
1 DH.89 Dragon Rapide
2 Miles M.57 Aerovan

Air Enterprises Ltd., Ringway, Manchester
A charter airline founded in 1944.
Current Fleet
7 Airspeed AS.6 Envoy

Air Freight Ltd., Gatwick Airport
Founded in 1944 to operate cargo freighting contracts to Empire destinations and across Europe. In June 1948 the company was acquired by British Eagle Ltd.
Current Fleet
6 Avro 711A Trader
6 Miles Merchantman

Air Malta
Operates flights to Taranto, Italy and Catania, Sicily and a longer daily route to Cairo via Alexandria as well as charter work.
Current Fleet
1 Cunliffe-Owen Concordia
3 Percival Q.6 Petrel
2 Miles Marathon

Airwork Limited, Gatwick Airport
Airwork was founded in 1928 by Nigel Norman and Alan Muntz at Heston Aerodrome in Middlesex. In 1935 due to a lack of adequate space Airwork relocated to Gatwick, where it continued with a contract to maintain Whitley bombers for the RAF. In June 1936, Airwork opened No. 11 RAF Elementary Flying Training School (EFTS) at Perth, Scotland, under contract to the Air Ministry. The company developed the accommodation and facilities and provided the aircraft. This was followed by No. 14 EFTS at Elmdon in July 1937. Airwork's other activities include contracting, aircraft servicing and maintenance, sale and purchase of aircraft, operation and management of flying schools and clubs, contract charter flying, overhaul and modification of aircraft, specialised aerodrome catering and aviation insurance. Airwork expanded into civil aviation, financed by its wealthy shareholders including; Lord Cowdray, Whitehall Securities, the Blue Star shipping line, Furness Withy and Thomas Loel Evelyn Bulkeley Guinness. Blackbushe Airport was the selected airfield and overseas charters were mainly flown to British Empire destinations. These include; twice weekly flights on behalf of the Sudanese government between Gatwick, Wadi Halfa and Khartoum, flights carrying Muslim pilgrims to and from Jeddah during the annual Hajj season. Airwork also manages the Egyptian airline Misrair.
Current Fleet
3 Douglas DC-3
4 BCAC VC.1 Viking
4 Avro 711 Trader
4 Miles Merchantman

Allied Airways (Gandar Dower) Ltd., Dyce Airport
Founded by Eric Gandar Dower in 1934 as Aberdeen Airways using his own Short Scion and operating from Dyce Airport, which Dower had built. In 1937 it adopted its current name and it also secured several mail contracts.
Current Fleet
4 DH.89 Dragon Rapide
6 Percival P.50 Prince
Percival P.64 Super Prince (future delivery 2 1949)
Services flown;
Aberdeen-Wick-Kirkwall daily (except Sundays)
Aberdeen-Wick-Kirkwall-Sumburgh daily (except Sundays)
Aberdeen-Wick-Thurso-Stromness three times weekly

Aquila Airways Ltd., Southampton
Founded in 1948 by Barry Aikman using two ex-BOAC Short S.45 Solent flying boats, mainly for freight work. In early 1949 Aquila obtained an association agreement with BEA under which they were permitted to operate scheduled services from Southampton to Lisbon and Madeira.
Current Fleet
2 Short S.45 Solent

Arabian Airways Ltd, Aden
Operates local charters and a weekly service to Muscat, Oman.
1 Miles Merchantman

Bahamas Airways Ltd., Oakes Airport, Nassau
Formed by Sir Harry Oakes in November 1936 as an air club (The Nassau Flying Club) and charter use. From 1945 the airline started a regular service to Miami.
Current Fleet
1 Douglas Dolphin
3 Handley Page Hermes II
Tribian Sponson (future delivery: 2 1948)
Services Flown;

Bermuda Flying School, Darrel’s Island Seaplane Station
Formed in early 1940 with two Luscombe seaplanes, the chief instructor is an American, Mr E. Stafford. Some charter work is undertaken.

Bond Air Services, Gatwick
A long-standing charter operator and aircraft repairer and sales agent.
Current Fleet
1 Handley Page Hermes I (operated on behalf of Peteair)
1 Handley Page Hermes II (ex-Union Air Services)
4 Avro 652D

Blue Line Airways, Brighton
A small charter operation that caters for the holiday market in the summer time. It flies regularly in the summer to Blackpool, Brighton, Southampton, Bournemouth and Norwich.
Current Fleet
5 Avro 652D

British Air Transport, Birmingham
A charter airline formed in 1944 by local business interests and ex-RAF pilots.
Current Fleet
6 Avro 652D

British Aviation Services Limited & Silver City Airways
In 1945, A.G. Lamplugh, head of the British Aviation Insurance Group, and Griffith J. Powell, its chief technical officer, persuaded BAIG’s shareholders to establish British Aviation Services as a new company to ferry US-built airliners to their European customers. The company was incorporated in 1946. Powell is also an adviser for the London-based mining company The Zinc Corporation. One of Powell's first visits to Broken Hill, Australia, also known as Silver City, made him decide on creating an air transport operator to serve the mining industry, to be named Silver City. Silver City Airways was incorporated on 25 November 1946. British Aviation Services has initially taken a 10% stake. It operates from Heathrow and flies to international destinations such as Kongo, Brazil, Australia and Canada for the mining industry.
Current Fleet (Silver City)
1 BCAC Type 170 Freighter (leased)
4 Douglas DC-3
3 Avro 685 York (leased)

British Eagle Ltd., Heathrow and Gatwick
Founded on 14 April 1948 by Harold Bamberg with a nominal capital of £100. Initial charter contracts are for transportation of fruit and vegetables. In June Eagle acquired the assets of Air Freight Ltd.
Current Fleet
2 Avro 685 York
6 Avro 711A Trader (ex-Air Freight)
6 Miles Merchantman (ex-Air Freight)

British West Indian Airways Ltd., Barbados
Current Fleet
3 Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar
5 Vickers VC.1 Viking
Services flown;
Barbados-Trinidad four times a week
Barbados-Trinidad via Grenada, St Vincent and St. Lucia weekly
Weekly ‘Round Robin’ Barbados-Antigua-St.Christopher-Antigua-St.Christopher-Antigua-Barbados

British Guiana Airways Ltd., Georgetown
In October 1937 received a three-year agreement with the government which agrees a subsidy and a set per-hour fee with a guaranteed minimum of 30 hours a year in return for first call on the airline’s services. It operates a passenger and mail service to the Mazaruni gold and diamond mines and the Rupununmi cattle fields.
Current Fleet
1 Percival P.50 Prince
1 Grumman Goose

British United Airlines
Formed in October 1943 by Whitehall Securities and the ‘Big Four’ railways companies and Gordon Olley to rationalise their investments in several smaller airlines which are facing strong competition from BEA. British and Foreign Aviation Ltd., Great Western & Southern Airlines Ltd. (operating as Channel Air Ferries), Isle of Man Air Services Ltd., Olley Air Service Ltd., Railway Air Services Ltd. and West Coast Air Services Ltd. have all been merged into one operation as British United Airlines. It has flight operations at Croydon, Speke Airport at Liverpool and the Isle of Man Airport at Derbyhaven.
Current Fleet
8 Avro 652C
16 Avro 652D
16 Avro 700 Ashton
4 DH.104 Dove,
6 DH.114 Heron (future deliveries 8 1948)
30 DH.95 Flamingo Mk II
12 DH.97 Ambassador
Routes flown;
Croydon-Brighton twice daily
Croydon-Bembridge twice daily
Croydon-Heston four times daily
Croydon-Birmingham-Liverpool-Isle of Man-Belfast-Glasgow daily
Croydon-Cardiff twice daily
Croydon-Birmingham-Nottingham daily
Croydon-Birmingham-Nottingham-Glasgow daily
Croydon-Bristol-Southampton daily (in summer extension to Shoreham)
Croydon-Brighton-Southampton-Bristol-Cardiff twice daily
Croydon-Cardiff-Belfast-Glasgow daily
Croydon-Liverpool three times daily
Croydon-Manchester three times daily
Liverpool-Birmingham-Nottingham twice daily
Liverpool-Birmingham-Manchester twice daily
Liverpool-Manchester- twice daily
Liverpool-Stoke-on-Trent-Birmingham daily
Liverpool-Glasgow twice daily
Liverpool-Belfast twice daily
Liverpool-Isle of Man-Belfast twice daily
Leeds-Blackpool-Isle of Man-Belfast daily
Isle of Man-Liverpool three times daily
Isle of Man-Blackpool-Liverpool twice daily
Isle of Man- Blackpool-Manchester twice daily
Isle of Man-Carlisle daily
Isle of Man-Glasgow daily
Isle of Man-Dublin daily
Manchester-Blackpool (summer only)
Penzance-Scilly Isles (summer only)
Bournemouth-Exeter-Plymouth-Penzance (summer only)
Cardiff-Teighmouth-Plymouth (summer only)

Burma and Malaya Air Services Ltd., Mandalay
Current Fleet
6 Percival Q.6 Petrel
5 DH.104 Dove
3 Miles Marathon
2 Miles Merchantman (future delivery 2 1949)
Miles M.73 Herald (future delivery: 12 1949-50)
4 DH.95 Flamingo Mk II
Services flown;
Internal services linking all the major towns and cities in Burma and Malaya with links between the two Colonies.

Channel Island Airways Ltd., The Airport, Jersey
Operates services to the Channel Islands of Alderney, Guernsey and Jersey from London, Southampton, Portsmouth, Shoreham, Exeter Plymouth and Dinard, France.
Current Fleet
4 DH.86 Dragon Four
2 Airspeed AS.6 Envoy
2 DH.95 Flamingo

CL Air Surveys Ltd., Ringway, Manchester
Operates charter photographic survey flights.
Current Fleet
2 DH.89 Dragon Rapide

East Anglian Flying Services
Founded in 1946 by Squadron Leader Reginald Jones as an aerial joy ride and air taxi business. Jones flies a from a landing strip near the Kent seaside town of Herne Bay and Southend Airport.
Current Fleet
1 DH Puss Moth

East African Airways Corporation
Founded 1 January 1946 and headquartered in the Sadler House in Nairobi, Kenya with its main operations base at Nairobi Airport. The airline is run by the East African Air Transport Authority for the British East Africa protectorates and colonies of Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. With an initial £50,000 capital, ownership of the company is split between Kenya (67.7%), Uganda (22.6%) and Tanganyika (9.7%). Management and technical expertise has been provided by BOAC. Sir Reginald Robbins is chairman.
Regional routes are; Nairobi–Mombasa–Tanga–Zanzibar–Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam–Zanzibar–Tanga–Mombasa–Nairobi, Nairobi–Moshi–Dar es Salaam, Nairobi–Kisumu–Entebbe, Nairobi–Eldoret–Kitale, Dar es Sallam–Zanzibar–Tanga, Dar es Salaam–Lindi, Mombasa-Lindi, Nairobi-Kigali and Dar es Salaam–Morogoro–Nduli–Southern Higlands–Chunya–Mbeya. A service to the Kongo is operated in conjunction with Koninklijke Kongo Luchtvaart Maatschappij (KKLM).
Current fleet
6 DH.89 Dragon Rapide
3 Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar
4 DH.104 Dove
4 DH.114 Heron

Elder Colonial Airways, Lagos, Nigeria
In January 1935 Imperial Airways completed negotiations with the Air Ministry for the creation of a route from Khartoum in Anglo-Egyptian Sudan to Nigeria. It was intended for the flights to terminate in Lagos, but because there were no airports which were suitable for operations, the flights terminated in Kano, and passengers connected to Lagos by train. Imperial Airways required an airline to operate between Kano and the Elder Dempster Lines docks in at Lame in Togo. Imperial Airways (West Africa) Limited was jointly formed between Imperial and Elder Dempster on 7 November 1935, and it was operated as Elders Colonial Airways. Imperial Airways (now BOAC) owns a half stake in the company and supplies all aircraft and personnel. Imperial Airways loaned a DH.86 Dragon Four. A weekly service from Kano to Porto-Novo in Benin commenced on 25 June 1938 with an Armstrong Whitworth Atlanta. Once an airport was opened at Lagos flights were undertaken direct from Sudan and Elder Colonial Airways operates daily Kano-Porto Novo and Kano-Lame routes. With the formation of the West African Airways Corporation in 1946, Elder Colonial’s contract with BOAC was replaced by a contract with WAAC.
Current Fleet
2 Miles Marathon (leased from BOAC)
1 Miles Merchantman
Miles M.73 Herald (future delivery: 2 1949-50)

Gulf Aviation Company, Bahrain
Established in 1949 by former RAF pilot Freddie Bosworth to operate scheduled feeder services between some of the Gulf states alongside charter/air taxi services, aircraft handling services and flying training services. Scheduled operations based in Bahrain commenced on 5 July 1950 to Doha (Qatar) and Sharjah (Trucial States) and on 28 September to Dhahran (Saudi Arabia).
Current Fleet
3 Avro 625D
1 de Havilland DH.86B Express
5 DH.104 Dove (future delivery 1951-52)

Henniken Smith & Co., London
Founded in 1947 to operate cargo charters, operates from Gatwick.
Current Fleet
1 Handley Page Hermes II

Hong Kong Airways
In 1946, Jardine Air Maintenance Company (JAMCo) had been formed to service the needs of airlines serving Hong Kong and Jardine Airways was formed as the general sales agent in Hong Kong and China of BOAC. Hong Kong Airlines was formed in 1947 by BOAC and Jardine, Matheson & Co. which is a feeder carrier to transport passengers from BOAC’s London to Hong Kong service to onward destinations in China and the Far East. Jardines are general sales agents of HKA.
Current Fleet
2 BCAC VC.1 Viking
1 Short S.32 Sandringham II

Hunting Air Travel Limited, Luton Airport
Formed in 1944 as a subsidiary of the Hunting Group of companies. Its main activities are contract, scheduled and non-scheduled domestic and international air services. In addition to a maintenance organisation, the Hunting Group's other aviation interests include Percival Aircraft Ltd., Hunting Aerosurveys Ltd. and Aerofilms Ltd.
Current Fleet
4 Avro 625D
7 BCAC VC.1 Viking
5 Percival P.50 Prince

Iraqi Airways
Iraqi Airways was founded in 1944 as a department of Iraqi State Railways. It operates routes between Baghdad, Kirkuk, Mosul, Palestine and Jordan.
Current Fleet
3 BCAC VC.1 Viking
5 DH.104 Dove

Jersey Airlines Ltd., Jersey
Formed during the summer of 1948 by Maldwyn L. Thomas to offer such day-tripper charter flights from Croydon to Jersey.
2 DH.89 Dragon Rapide

Kenyan Air Services, Nairobi
Operates a daily service in Kenya on the Mbeya-Dodoma-Nairobi route with an extension to Kisumu. There is a twice weekly route Nairobi-Kampala (Uganda) and a weekly service to Kigali (Rwanda) and twice-weekly route to Dar es Salaam.
Current Fleet
4 DH.89 Dragon Rapide
2 Miles Marathon
Miles Merchantman (future deliveries: 2 1948)

Lancashire Aircraft Corporation (LAC), Salmesbury and Bovingdon
Founded in 1946 to operate heavy cargo charters, the company also carries out aircraft servicing and repair work and training.
Current Fleet
1 Handley Page Hermes I
14 Handley Page Hermes II

London Aero & Motor Services (LAMS), Elstree
This company began flight operations 1946 to take advantage of the burgeoning cargo market but after a series of mishaps, including the death of both directors in an air accident, the company folded in June 1948 and its assets were acquired by Skyflight Ltd. Two short-lived subsidiaries were formed during the summer of 1947 using one aircraft each; LAMS (Australia), Sydney and LAMS (Kenya).
Current Fleet
18 Handley Page Hermes II

Lundy & Atlantic Coast Airlines, Barnstaple
This company has been in business since 1936. It operates routes from Barnstaple to Lundy Island, Cardiff and Torquay.
1 DH.104 Dove

Malayan Airways Limited (MAL)
Founded on 12 October 1937, by Alfred Holt's Liverpool-based Ocean Steamship Company, in partnership with the Straits Steamship Company and Imperial Airways (later BOAC) at Singapore. It mainly operated charter flights as well as weekly scheduled flights from Singapore to Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh and Penang. In June 1947, BOAC acquired the Holt shareholding and began an expansion in feeder routes across Malaya and to Borneo and Burma.
Current Fleet
5 Airspeed AS.6 Envoy
10 Miles Marathon
Miles Merchantman (future delivery: 4 1948)
Miles M.73 Herald (future delivery: 6 1949-50)

Mayfair Air Services, Thame
Charter operator since 1945.
Current Fleet
3 DH.89 Dragon Rapide

Middle East Airlines
Formed 16 May 1942 by Saeb Salam, with operational and technical support from BOAC. Operations started on 1 January 1943 between Jerusalem, Beirut and Nicosia. Routes were added to Cairo in mid-1944 and Baghdad in December 1944.
Current Fleet
3 DH.89A Dragon Rapide
4 BCAC VC.1 Viking

Morton Air Services
Founded in 1945 by pilot Captain T.W. "Sammy" Morton as a private, independent airline. Operations include general charter work, air ambulance services and racecourse charters.
Current Fleet
6 Airspeed AS.6 Envoy
10 DH.104 Dove
6 Aerocar Major (future delivery 6 1948)

This Egyptian company operates an eleven-times weekly service to Lydda, Jerusalem (Palestine) and Beirut (Syria) from Cairo and also services to Cyprus via Lydda. This firm also operates all the internal Egyptian routes. It is managed by Airwork Ltd and was known as Misr Airwork from 1933-44.
Current Fleet
5 DH.89 Dragon Rapide
1 DH.90 Dragonfly
3 Avro 652D
6 BCAC VC.1 Viking
6 Heliopolis Gomhouria 3

North Eastern Airways Ltd., Doncaster
This airline was founded by Lord Grimthorpe on 4th March 1935 and has held firm and independent despite pressures from the railway companies, Railway Air Services and BEA. In 1937 it joined IATA and has gained some Royal Mail contracts.
Current Fleet
8 DH.89 Dragon Rapide
2 Percival P.50 Prince
Percival P.64 Super Prince (future delivery 6 1948)
2 DH.95 Flamingo
Services flown;
Doncaster-Hull-Grimsby twice daily
Doncaster-Manchester-Liverpool twice daily
Doncaster-Leeds-York-Newcastle-Glasgow daily
Doncaster-Croydon twice daily
Doncaster-Croydon-Knocke-Le Zoute (Netherlands) daily

Palestine Airways
The State-run airline of Palestine which operates services from Jerusalem to Amman, Jordan and shorter routes within Palestine. It has important Royal Mail and government transport contracts.
Current Fleet
3 DH.89 Dragon Rapide
2 DH.95 Flamingo Mk II
4 DH.97 Ambassador
8 DH.104 Dove

Payloads (Charter) Co. Ltd., Stanstead
Formed in late 1946 as an associate company of London Aero & Motor Services (LAMS). The latter’s collapse in 1948 affected operations and they ceased operations in December 1948.
Current Fleet
2 Airspeed AS.6 Envoy
10 Handley Page Hermes II (leased from LAMS)

Portsmouth, Southsea & Isle of Wight Aviation, Portsmouth
This airline was formed in June 1932 and operates the shortest regular airline routes in the world across Spithead and along the south coast.
Current Fleet
8 Aerocar Major (future deliveries: 6 1948-49)
Services flown;
Portsmouth-Ryde every half hour in summer and four times daily in winter
Portsmouth-Ryde-Shanklin four times daily
Portsmouth-Ryde-Shanklin-Bournemouth summer only
Portsmouth-Shoreham twice daily
Southampton-Ryde four times daily in summer and twice daily in winter
Southampton-Ryde-Shanklin summer only
Also in summer link services are made from Portsmouth to Heston Aerodrome and from Bournemouth to Bristol.

Scottish Airways Ltd., Renfrew Airport, Glasgow
Formed in August 1937 from a merger of Highland Airways and Northern and Scottish Airways. The LMS railway owns a 40% stake. Some aircraft still carry Western Isles Airways Limited livery, but the firm is a wholly owned subsidiary.
Current Fleet
5 DH.89 Dragon Rapide
5 DH.95 Flamingo
3 DH.95 Flamingo Mk II
5 Avro 700 Ashton
DH.114 Heron (future deliveries: 8 1949-50)
Services flown;
Glasgow-Belfast twice daily
Glasgow-Campbeltown-Islay twice daily
Glasgow-Tiree-Barra daily
Glasgow-Barra-South Uist-Benebecula-North Uist-Harris daily
Glasgow-Skye-North Uist daily
Glasgow-Perth-Inverness twice daily
Inverness-Wick-Kirkwall twice daily
Inverness-Wick-Kirkwall-Sumburgh daily
Kirkwall-Stronsay-Sanday-North Ronaldsay daily
Kirkwall-Ronsay-Westray daily and Inverness-Wick-Aberdeen daily.

Scottish Airlines (Prestwick) Limited
A subsidiary of Scottish Aviation Limited founded in 1946. The airline undertakes worldwide passenger and cargo charter flights to destinations all over Europe, Africa, the Middle East, India, Canada and the United States from its base at Prestwick. It also operates scheduled services between Prestwick Airport and Ronaldsway Airport on the Isle of Man. Contract flights include charter flights between Prestwick and Iceland on behalf of Iceland Airways and scheduled services linking Prestwick with Belfast and London, Glasgow with Belfast and London, and Aberdeen with London under contract to BEA, Prestwick with Amsterdam under contract to KLM, and Prestwick and Manchester with Brussels under contract to Sabena.
Current Fleet
4 Avro 685 York
6 Douglas DC-3
1 Fokker F.XXII

Skyways Ltd., Langley Airport, Berkshire
Founded in 1944 as a charter operation specialising in freight and industrial transportation. Former British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) Director General Brigadier General A.C. Critchley is the chairman and the inflight refuelling pioneer Sir Alan Cobham is deputy chairman. Veteran aviator Captain R.J. Ashley is the managing director. The newly formed airline operated its first flight with a leased Avro York chartered by the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company to carry oil personnel and freight from Langley to Basra via RAF Manston, Malta, Cairo and RAF Lydda. Langley's lack of Customs facilities necessitates a stop at Manston before leaving the UK. Each round-trip takes 35 flying hours and four days. Other oil contracts have followed.
Current Fleet
2 Avro York (on loan from BEA)
1 DH.104 Dove
2 Avro 711A Trader
4 Miles Merchantman

Skyflight Ltd., Stanstead
Formed in May 1948 from the crumbling London Aero & Motor Services (LAMS), whose assets it totally acquired in June.
Current Fleet
7 Handley Page Hermes II (ex-LAC)

Starways Ltd., Speke, Liverpool
The airline was formed in 1948 to undertake freight and passenger charters. It also provides joyriding flights.
Current Fleet
2 DH.89 Dragon Rapide
2 Avro 652D

Sudan Airways
An Air Advisory Board was formed in 1945 to assess on the feasibility of starting air services in Sudan. After a favourable report, Sudan Airways was formed in February 1946 with the technical assistance of Airwork Limited, and the commercial support of Sudan Railways. The first scheduled operations were launched in July the same year. The main operations hub is Khartoum Airport. The routes link Khartoum with Asmara, Atbara, El Fashir, El Obeid, Geneina, Juba, Kassala, Malakal and Port Sudan. An Airwork Viking flies a Blackbushe–Khartoum long-haul route.
Current Fleet
5 DH.104 Dove,
DH.114 Heron (future deliveries: 2 1949)
1 BCAC VC.1 Viking (leased from Airwork)

Transair Ltd., Croydon
A charter operation which specialises in light freight and newspaper deliveries.
Current Fleet
8 Avro 652D
8 Avro 700 Ashton

VIP Air Services Ltd., Thame
Formed by Rex Morley Hoyes in April 1947 for charter work. Also operates a daily milk delivery route from Belfast to Liverpool.
Current Fleet
2 Piper Cubs
1 Handley Page Hermes I

Western Airways Ltd., Weston-Super-Mare
Norman Edgar first began a trans-Severn estuary service in September 1932 and in September 1933 formed Norman Edgar (Western Airways) Ltd. In January 1938 the Straight Corporation took control of the airline and the name changed to Western Airways.
Current Fleet
4 DH.89 Dragon Rapide
4 Avro 700 Ashton
1 DH.114 Heron
Services flown;
Weston-Super-Mare-Cardiff four times daily in winter and in the summer this service operates every hour
Bristol-Cardiff hourly
Weston-Super-Mare-Birmingham daily
Services to Le Touquet and Paris are also undertaken in the summer

West African Airways Corporation (WAAC)
Founded 1 January 1946 and headquartered in the Sadler House in Airways House in Ikeja, Nigeria with its main operations base at Lagos Airport. The airline is run by the West African Air Transport Authority for the British West Africa colonies of Nigeria, Benin and Chad. With an initial £50,000 capital, ownership of the company is split between Nigeria (69%), Chad (22%) and Benin (9%). Management and technical expertise has been provided by BOAC. The company provides British West Africa with air transport facilities, to connecting it with Dakar and Khartoum in order to provide passengers with a gateway to the Americas and the Middle East, respectively, and to operating feeder flights that connected with Europe-bound BOAC services. WAAC is also acts as an agent for BOAC in Nigeria. Elder Colonial Airways’ daily Kano-Porto Novo and Kano-Lome routes run under BOAC contract are now run under WAAC contract.
International services are flown to; Tiko in Cameroon (SAE), Abidjan in Cote d’Ivoire (France), Accra in Cote d’Or (France), Monrovia in Liberia (Iberia), Benin Airport (France), Dakar in Senegal (France) and El Geneina and Khartoum in the Sudan.
Internal services are flown to:
(Nigeria) Bida Airstrip, Calabar Airport, Enugu Airport, Ibadan Airport, Gusau Airstrip, Jos Airport, Kaduna Airport, Kano Airport, Maiuguri Airport, Makurdi Airport, Osogbo Airstrip, Port Harcourt Airport and Yola Airport.
(Togo) Dapaong Airstrip, Kara Airstrip, Lome Airport, Mango Airstrip and Sokodé Airstrip.
(Chad) Abecher Airstrip, Abou Deia Airstrip, Am Timan Airstrip, Ati Airstrip, Bokoro Airport, Bol Airstrip, Bongor Airstrip, Faya Largeau Airstrip, Fort Archambault Airport, Mongo Airport, Moundou Airstrip, Ndjamena Airport, Oum Hadjer Airport and Pala Airstrip.
Current fleet
4 BCAC (Bristol) Type 170 Freighter
10 DH.104 Dove
2 Miles Marathon
3 Douglas DC-3

Westminster Airways Ltd., Croydon
A charter airline founded in 1943. Also undertakes aircraft servicing and maintenance.
Current Fleet
3 Avro 652D
3 Handley Page Hermes I

World Air Freight, Bovingdon
Founded in June 1947 as a worldwide freight charter operator.
Current Fleet
3 Handley Page Hermes II


Saturday, June 17th 2017, 2:15pm

British Aircraft Industry 1948 (Part 1)

This is 1948's round up of British aviation activity, types in production, development and design stage. Big groups listed first, smaller independents later (second post).

The British Aircraft Industry and its Products 1948

Groups within the Industry


AIRCO, the third conglomerate in the industry formed on March 6 1938 when Handley Page Ltd. merged with de Havilland and in August 1941 Fairey Aviation Co. Ltd. joined. Each company trades individually but there is close co-operation between design and sales teams and joint use of research resources. AIRCO controls; Handley Page Aircraft Ltd, de Havilland Company Ltd., de Havilland Australia Pty Ltd., de Havilland Canada Ltd., de Havilland Forge Ltd., de Havilland Engine Co. Ltd., AIRCO-Reed Propellers Ltd. (merger of de Havilland Propellers Ltd. and Fairey-Reed Ltd.), Hearle-Whitley Engineering Co. Ltd., Airspeed Aviation Ltd. (now de Havilland’s Christchurch Division), Fairey Aviation Co. Ltd, and Avions Fairey in Belgium.

de Havilland Company Ltd.
Hatfield, Hertfordshire and Christchurch, Portsmouth
Types Currently in Production:
The DH.98 Mosquito production line at Hatfield finally closed in November 1947.
DH.97 Ambassador (former Airspeed AS.57), 28-49 seat airliner, prototype first flown 10 July 1944, all current orders have been fulfilled but the line remains open for possible restarting of production.
DH.97 Ayrshire, civil freighter variant of the Ambassador with a new pod and boom fuselage, designed to carry 16,000lbs freight or 65 passengers, first flown 11 June 1947. No orders currently.
DH.104 Dove, 8-11 seat feederliner, prototype first flown on 23 September 1942, current orders being fulfilled several for airlines, private orders, 7 for Royal Iraqi Air Force, 6 for Royal Egyptian Air Force and 9 modified for coastal reconnaissance for the Prefectura Naval Argentina .
DH.114 Heron, 14-17 seat feederliner, a scaled-up four-engined Dove, prototype first flown 10 May 1946, current orders being fulfilled include 8 for British United Airlines, 8 for Scottish Airways and 2 for Sudan Airways plus several for private use.
DH.100 Vampire F.Mk.III, an improved variant with additional fuel and a revised tailplane, prototype TG275 flown 4 November 1945, current orders for 100 aircraft, the first production aircraft flew in February 1947, export orders for Switzerland (25 F.Mk.41) and the Philippines (75 Mk.31).
DH.100 Vampire FB.Mk.IV, a ground-attack variant with clipped wings, underwing bomb racks, a longer stroke undercarriage and a 3,350lb de Havilland DGo.3 Goblin II turbojet. A production F.Mk.I, TG444, was converted and first flew 29 June 1947. 400 ordered for the RAF and first deliveries commenced from March 1948. Export orders for Iraq (15 Mk.55) and Egypt (15 Mk.56).
Types in Development:
DH.108 Swallow, experimental tailless swept wing jet-powered aircraft for low speed handling trials and high Mach number flying, designed to meet Spec E.1/44, aircraft TG283 with leading-edge sweepback of 43 degrees first flown 15 May 1946, aircraft TG306 with leading-edge sweepback of 45 degrees first flown 23 July 1946 but lost on 27 September due to structural failure killing Geoffrey de Havilland Jnr., replacement aircraft TG281 first flown 24 July 1947.
DH.115 Vampire T.Mk.V, a two-seat advanced trainer variant of the basic Vampire fighter, prototype first flown 28 August 1948. 100 on order for the RAF and ? on order for the Philippines (Mk.51).
DH.106 Comet, design work to meet Spec P.3/44 for a fast medium range airliner for BOAC, first prototype G-ALVG first flown on 27 July 1948, followed later by second prototype G-ALVH. BOAC have ordered 12 production aircraft which will commence assembly during 1949. These will be used as trials aircraft by BOAC and AIRCO. The improved Comet 1A planned for 1950 will have improved Ghost III Mk.2 engines and water-methanol injection.
DH.112 Venom, improved Vampire with new wings and a 4,850lb de Havilland DGh.4 Ghost IV turbojet, covered by Spec F.7/47, prototype VV612 first flew on 2 September 1948. 350 on order, service entry planned for 1950.
Design Work:
DH.97 Turbo-Ambassador, design work on a modernised variant powered by two 4,500shp Bristol Proteus I turboprops and with fore and aft fuselage plugs to carry 60 passengers, first flight possibly in 1950.
DH.106 Comet 2 & 3, under design as improved variants with more fuel and payload capacity and a modified wing with four Rolls-Royce Avon turbojets and increased fuel capacity. First flights are planned for 1951.
DH.110, design work to meet Spec N.40/46 for a carrier-based twin-jet all-weather fighter and also modified and submitted to meet Spec F.44/46 for a two-seat all-weather jet-powered interceptor, development contract awarded for both Specifications. Also design work on a modified variants to meet Spec F.5/47 for a long-range fighter-bomber and Spec N.4/47 for carrier-based strike bomber.
Other Work:
Aeronautical Technical School, Hatfield, runs a range of apprenticeships and training courses in all aspects of aviation related engineering.
de Havilland Aircraft of Canada Ltd., Toronto, Ontario
de Havilland Aircraft of Australia Ltd., Melbourne

de Havilland Engine Company Ltd.
Leavesden, Hertfordshire.
Types Currently in Production:
Gipsy Major VII, 145hp, air-cooled 4-cyl inverted inline engine, military engine, certified 1942.
Gipsy Major X, 145hp, certified 1943.
Gipsy Major XI, 145hp, military version of X, certified 1945.
Gipsy Major XX, 200hp, designed for use in helicopters, certified 1945.
Gipsy Queen V, 240hp, air-cooled 6-cyl inverted inline engine, certified 1943.
Gipsy Queen VI, 250hp, certified 1943.
Gipsy Queen VII, 380hp, supercharged with reduction-drive, certified 1944.
Gipsy Queen VII-4, 340hp, de-rated version, certified 1947.
DGo.2 Goblin II, 3,100lb, originally the Halford H-1, single-sided centrifugal compressor, 16 combustion chambers, single-stage turbine, the H-1 first ran 13 April 1942, first flown 5 March 1943 in a Gloster Meteor and 20 September in a DH.100 Vampire, DGo.2 production began 1944.
DGo.3, Goblin III, 3,350lb, certified 1945.
DGo.4 Goblin IV, 3,750lb, certified 1945.
DGh.1 Ghost II, 4,850lb, originally the Halford H-2, single stage centrifugal compressor, 10 combustion chambers, single-stage turbine, began testing in 1944 and flown in 1945.
DGh.2 Ghost III, 5,000lb, production engine, certified 1946.
DGh.3 Ghost III Mk.2, 5,125lb, improved version, certified 1947.
DGh.4 Ghost IV, 4,850lb, certified 1946.
DGl.2 Globe II, 525shp, originally the Halford H-3, single stage centrifugal compressor single-stage turbine turboprop designed as a replacement for the Gipsy series, certified 1946.
DGl.3 Globe III, 575shp, improved version with new combustors, certified 1947.
Types in Development:
DGh.5 Ghost V, 4,950lb, improved DGh.4, began testing during 1948.
DGh.6 Ghost VI, 5,150lb, improved DGh.4, began testing during 1948.
Design Work:
D.Spr.1 Sprite, 5,000lbs HTP/kerosene rocket, being designed for use in RATO applications on large airliners and bombers, hydrogen peroxide monopropellant decomposed into oxygen and steam over a metallic calcium catalyst, testing to begin in 1950.
Halford H-4, under design by Frank Halford, an axial-flow design intended to out-power any design currently under development with an ultimate aim of producing 20,000lbs dry, testing to begin in 1952.
Other Work:
Subsidiaries de Havilland Aircraft (Australia) Co. Ltd. and de Havilland Aircraft (Canada) Co. Ltd.
Subsidiary (51% stake) Arab British Engine Company (ABECo), Helwan, Egypt, founded 1941, overhaul and servicing of de Havilland engine types and licenced manufacture of Gipsy Minor and Gipsy Major series engines, Egyptian government holds remaining 49%.
Sister company AIRCO-Reed Propellers Ltd., Lostock, Lancashire, manufactures Hamilton Standard, de Havilland, Fairey and Reed design propellers, manufacture of electronic vibration-measuring equipment, aircraft cold-air units, turbine-driven electric alternators, RDF scanners, electronic equipment, plastic structures, research into use of epoxy resin/glass fibre-reinforced plastics for airscrew spinners, blade root fairings and other components.

Handley Page Aircraft Ltd.
Works: [/b] Radlett, Hertfordshire and Cricklewood, London
Types Currently in Production:
H.P.74 Hermes II and H.P.76 Hermes III have received no further commercial orders and were withdrawn from sale in January 1948.
H.P.89 Hastings C.Mk.II, a development of the Hastings using the stretched H.P.74 Hermes II fuselage with the addition of a ventral door/ramp, 50 aircraft ordered, final production aircraft delivered March 1948.
H.P. 89 Handley Page Hastings C.Mk.III, VIP transport variant II seating up to 28 passengers, first of four aircraft flown on 22 September 1948, production completed December 1948.
H.P.77 Hampton Series 2, 24-34 seat airliner developed to meet Spec P.8/44 for BEA, prototype first flown 26 November 1945, powered by two 2,500shp Bristol Theseus III turboprops, 6 built for BEA Turbine Evaluation and Trials Unit during 1947.
Types in Development:
See below.
Design Work:
H.P.80, design work to meet Spec B.35/46 for a jet-powered heavy bomber. Design features a ‘crescent’ wing to give a high constant critical Mach number along the span with freedom from shock wave formation thus delaying drag rise and avoiding tip stalling. Formally selected for further development to meet OR.229.
H.P.88, a scale-model H.P.80 developed under Spec E.6/48 for aerodynamic research with the ‘crescent wing’. Detail design and production to be sub-contracted, first flight due mid-1950.
Other Work:
Aerodynamic research on flying wings, boundary-layer control and high-lift devices.

Fairey Aviation Co. Ltd.
Hayes, Middlesex and Hamble, Hampshire
Types Currently in Production:
Fox II B.Mk.I, private-venture land-based ground attack variant of the Spearfish, RAF orders total 250 aircraft, production completed August 1947, export order for Iraq (15) completed December 1947. Licence production by Societe Anonyme Belge Avions Fairey completed May 1948.
Spearfish TBR.Mk.II, a Rolls-Royce RB.39 Clyde-powered variant, the converted second prototype RN341 was flown on 14 July 1946, 200 ordered for FAA, deliveries between August 1947-January 1949.
Types in Development:
VTO, a vertical-launch delta-wing research scale model powered by a RAE Beta 1 HTP/methanol hydrazine rocket motor, first flown in 1947.
VTO Scheme 6, a modified VTO with a new design of delta wing and two Beta series rockets with four 3in boosters for launch, designed for speeds of M1.5, first flown in December 1948.
Gyrodyne, novel helicopter with a three-bladed rotor and an anti-torque rotor on a starboard stub wing which provides added thrust, prototype first flown 4 December 1947, second prototype to fly in 1948. Design work has begun on a further development with tip-jets on the rotors.
Widgeon, a 5-seat light helicopter powered by one Leonides radial engine. First prototype flown on 23 August 1948, following military evaluation orders for FAA and RAF for search and rescue role fitted with a powered winch under Spec S.14/48, to enter service 1950.
Primer, Tipsy M for RAF evaluation under Spec. T.17/48.
Design Work:
Type Q, design work to meet GR.17/45 for a carrier-based anti-submarine aircraft, development contract awarded, to be powered by the Armstrong Siddeley Double Mamba turboprop, prototype to fly during 1949.
Jet Gyrodyne, development of Gyrodyne to Spec E.16/48 with the addition of tip jets on a new large two-bladed rotor fed by compressed air from Alvis Leonides radial that also powers two propellers on stub wings for extra thrust. The third Gyrodyne is to be rebuilt and flown in early 1950.
Blue Sky, design work beginning in August 1948 on beam-riding air-to-air missile to meet OR.1088.
Other Work:
Societe Anonyme Belge Avions Fairey, Gosselies, Charleroi, manufactures the Avions-Fairey Tipsy B, Tispy M and Tipsy Junior and licence-manufactures the Fox II and Gloster Meteor 4 and Meteor Trainer (both sub-contracted to SABCA). The Tipsy range is also built in Britain under licence from Fairey Aviation Co. Ltd by the Tipsy Aircraft Co. Ltd. at Hanworth Air Park.
Fairey Hydraulics Ltd., Heston, manufacturer of hydraulic power controls and filters for aircraft.
Fairey Filtration Ltd., Heston, manufacturer of industrial filters.
Fairey Marine (East Cowes) Ltd., East Cowes, Isle of Wight, ship and boat building
Fairey Marine Ltd., Hamble, boat building and repair
Fairey Surveys Ltd., Maidenhead, aerial and geophysical survey and mapping
Fairey Surveys (Scotland) Ltd., Livingston, aerial and geophysical survey and mapping

British Combined Aircraft Corporation (BCAC)
Originally formed in March 1943 as the Bristol Vickers Aircraft Company with the merger of Vickers-Supermarine and Bristol (including Bristol engines). In 1944 Westland joined and the current name was adopted. Vickers-Armstrongs is the majority shareholder, while other major shareholders are John Brown & Co. Ltd. and Associated Electrical Industry Ltd. In March 1948 Percival Aircraft Ltd. was acquired from the Hunting Group Limited (the holding company of Hunting & Son Ltd.) in return for a 10% share in BCAC. There has been consolidation of design teams and production facilities, Weybridge is the main design centre, Filton handling rotary-wing work and Yeovil maintains a design team under W.E.W. Petter. All Bristol designed commercial aircraft are marketed under the ‘BC’ label and Vickers commercial aircraft ‘VC’. Percival types will retain their original designations for the time being but commercial types will be marketed under the ‘PC’ label. The titles BCAC (Vickers-Supermarine), BCAC (Bristol) and BCAC (Westland) are still in use for some marketing products.
Works: Weybridge, Surrey; Brooklands, Surrey; Wisley, Surrey; Blackpool, Lancashire; Southampton, Hampshire, Filton, Bristol, Yeovil, Somerset and Luton, Bedfordshire.
Types Currently in Production:
Type 170 Freighter, private-venture large freight carrier, in production since March 1944. Current orders being fulfilled include 3 for the Fuerza Aerea Argentina.
Type 174 BC.1 Wayfarer, 34-seat passenger variant of the Type 170 without nose doors, the prototype was converted during April 1946.
Type 172 Wayfarer C.Mk.I, variant of the Type 170 for the RAF, orders for 60 aircraft, production completed June 1946 but further orders can be met.
Wyvern FSN.Mk.I, torpedo-fighter for the FAA to meet Spec N.12/43, powered by a 3,500hp Rolls-Royce Eagle III piston engine, first prototype TS371 flown 16 December 1944, second prototype TS375 flown 10 September 1945, 2 further prototypes and 20 pre-production aircraft flown during 1946, orders for 100 aircraft, deliveries between February-September 1947.
Wyvern FSN.Mk.II, improved variant powered by a 4,030ehp Rolls-Royce RB.39 Clyde I turboprop, first prototype VP120 flown 18 January 1946, second prototype VP121 flown 20 April 1946, followed by 2 further prototypes in 1946 and 10 pre-production aircraft in 1947, current orders for 100 aircraft, deliveries between September 1947-April 1948.
Wyvern F.Mk.IV, escort-fighter variant of the W.34 for the RAF to meet Spec F.13/43, powered by a 4,030ehp Rolls-Royce RB.39 Clyde I turboprop, first prototype WE904 flown 29 March 1946, second prototype WE905 flown 24 July 1946, 10 pre-production aircraft built during 1947 and 150 production aircraft sub-contracted to Boulton Paul.
Type 381 Seagull ASR.Mk.I, single-engine reconnaissance amphibian flying boat designed to meet Spec S.14/44, current orders for 140, production deliveries during March 1947-May 1948.
Type 447 Windsor B.Mk.I, last of 300 ordered left the production line in February 1947.
Type 601 Windsor B.Mk.III, improved variant with four 4,030ehp Rolls-Royce RB.39 Clyde I turboprops, first prototype WF557 flown December 14 1945, second prototype WF562 flown August 1946, current orders for 150 aircraft, deliveries during May 1947-February 1948.
Type 607 Valetta C.Mk.I; transport variant of the VC.1 Viking for Spec C.9/43, prototype VL249 flown 30 June 1945, orders for 200, production completed January 1947.
Type 664 Valetta T.Mk.III, flying classroom navigation trainer developed to Spec T.1/46, orders for 40, production completed in June 1947.
Type 654 Valetta Met.Mk.IV, meteorological reconnaissance variant developed to Spec T.13/47, orders for 20, deliveries during January-March 1948.
Type 668 Varsity, a pilot and navigation trainer variant of the Viking/Valetta to meet Spec T.13/45, first prototype flown 17 July 1947, orders for 50, deliveries during March-July 1948.
Type 167 BC.2 Britannia Series 200, 90-seat (61 seats on transatlantic routes or 36 sleepers) long-range airliner, powered by four 5,000hp Bristol Twin Centaurus I radials, first prototype G-AGPW flown 4 September 1945, first production airliner G-AKGH entered commercial service in September 1947, 20 built for BOAC during July-December 1947.
Type 497 Westminster B.Mk.I, six-engine heavy bomber designed to meet Spec B.1/42 for a “Giant Bomber” to replace the Ideal Bomber programme, powered by six 5,000hp Bristol Twin Centaurus radial engines, first prototype SR650 flown 14 June 1946, current orders for 100 aircraft, production during February-December 1948.
Type 178 Argus MR.Mk.I, maritime patrol aircraft based on the Type 167 Britannia airliner, developed to meet requirements of the Royal Australian Air Force, prototype flown in December 1946 and deliveries commenced December 1947, current orders for 100 for RAF, deliveries between May 1948-March 1949.
PC.1 P.64 Super Prince, an improved 14-seat P.50 with 550hp Leonides V radial engines, prototype first flown 20 July 1947, current order for 6 for North Eastern Airways Ltd. and several private orders being fulfilled.
P.66 Pembroke, improved 15-seat P.64 Prince with longer span wing and wider fuselage for three abreast seating, developed to meet Spec C.18/46, orders cover 3 VIP and 51 general transport aircraft, production began in June 1948.
P.56 Provost, two-seat basic trainer developed to meet Spec T.17/45, side-by-side seating for pupil and instructor and powered by a 550hp Alvis Leonides V radial, first prototype WE522 first flown 24 February 1947, initial RAF orders for 200, production began in November 1948, export order for Sudan (4 T.Mk.53).
Types in Development:
Type 507 Westminster B.Mk.II, improved variant powered by six Rolls-Royce RB.39 Clyde II turboprops, prototype B.Mk.II SR815 first flown 12 December 1947, current orders for 70 aircraft, to begin production in 1949.
Wyvern FSN.Mk.III, improved variant with 3,600shp + 1,100lbs thrust Armstrong Siddeley ASP.3 Python, first prototype VP109 flown 22 March 1946 with ASP.1, the second prototype VP113 flown 20 August 1946 with production ASP.3, followed by two other prototypes during late-1947 plus 20 pre-production aircraft during 1948, current orders for 100 aircraft from 1949.
Wyvern W.38 T.Mk.V, a two-seat conversion trainer of the FSN.Mk.III to Spec T.12/48, one prototype on order to fly during 1950.
Type 171 Sycamore, light four-seat helicopter, design work covered by Spec E.20/45, first prototype VL958 flown 27 July 1947, second prototype flown 18 August 1947. A four-seat Mk.2 prototype is scheduled for 1949 as the production standard design.
Type 618 Nene-Viking, conversion of the Ministry of Supply owned VX865 with two Rolls-Royce Nene I turbojets for a research programme into civil jet-powered airliners, first flight following conversion 6 April 1946, on 25 July set a new record between London Airport and Villacoublay of 34min 7sec.
Type 167 BC.2 Britannia Series 210, a turboprop-powered series 200 aircraft, powered by four Armstrong Siddeley 3,600shp + 1,100lbs ASP.1 Python turboprops, the first 210 prototype, the third Type 167 pre-production aircraft G-AGRF first flown 22 July 1947, 25 on order for BOAC.
Type 175 BC.3 Britannia Series 110, 74-seat turboprop-powered medium-range airliner based on the Type 167 airframe, powered by four 3,900shp Bristol Proteus II turboprops, first prototype G-ALBO first flown 16 August 1947, 25 on order for BOAC.
Type 630 VC.2 Viscount, 32-seat airliner powered by four 1,600shp Rolls-Royce RB.53 Dart II turboprops, designed to meet Spec P.8/43, prototype G-AHRF first flown July 16 1947, BEA has ordered 20 aircraft for delivery in 1949.
Canberra B.Mk.I, design work to meet Spec B.3/45, uses H2S/NBC blind-bombing system, first prototype VN799 flown 13 May 1948 powered by 6,500lb R.A.2 Avon turbojets followed by three more prototypes during September 1948-March 1949. Current orders for 150 aircraft.
Canberra B.Mk.II, design work on three-seat daylight tactical bomber variant with a glazed nose to meet Spec B.5/46, prototype flown August 1948, current orders for as many as 400.
Design Work:
Type 175 BC.3 Britannia Series 150, design work on a new variant combining the airframe of the Series 210 with the Proteus engines and fuel system of the Series 110 to seat 139 passengers on high-demand routes, being developed for BEA, planned service entry for 1950.
Type 175 BC.3 Britannia Series 300, a cargo carrying variant the Series 150, 5 on order for BOAC.
Type 172 BC.3 Britannia Series 301, a version of the Series 300 for the RAF with a forward fuselage cargo door and capacity for 115 troops, to enter service in 1950.
PC.2 P.66 President, civil version of Pembroke with civilian-spec avionics, first flight planned 1949.
Type 173, tandem-rotor helicopter, design work to meet Spec E.4/46.
Westland Canberra PR.Mk.III, design work on a reconnaissance variant to meet Spec PR.31/46.
Canberra B.Mk.V, design work on a target marker variant to meet Spec B.22/47.
Type 508, being designed to meet N.9/47 for a twin-engined carrier-based fighter-bomber equipped for day interception duties and a variant is also being designed to meet Spec F.43/46 for a high-speed high-altitude jet-powered day interceptor. One prototype ordered to N.9/47 in 1948.
Type 660, design work, originally to meet Spec B.35/46, for a jet-powered heavy bomber, selected for production in early 1948 under Spec B.9/46, features four Rolls-Royce RA.3 Avon turbojets and a swept wing.
Type 673, design work to meet Spec B.21/48 for a modified Type 660 for the low-altitude target marking role. One prototype on order.
Type 180, design work for a lengthened Type 167 variant powered by four coupled Proteus engines to meet Spec P.5/46 for a long-range airliner for BOAC.
Type 179 BC.4 Super Freighter, private venture design work for a replacement for the Type 170, first flight planned for 1950.
V700 Viscount, design work on a variant with a longer cabin for 48 passengers.
Type 177, tender to Spec F.3/48 (re-issued F.43/46) covering three designs; 177A with two stacked reheated Avons with a 56 degree swept wing and T-tail; 177B with side-by-side engines and 177C with solid nose with side intakes and a 65 degree swept wing.
Type 526, design work to Spec F.3/48 (re-issued F.43/46), a de-navalised Type 525.
Type 174, design work on a private-venture jet-powered bomber with swept wings powered by two 12,000lb Bristol B.Ol.2 Olympus turbojets in wing pods, crew of 3, armed with a remote-controlled single 30mm ADEN tail turret and 10,00lb bombload.
VC.4, design work on a North Atlantic jet airliner with 70 passengers and four underwing Avon or Sapphire engines, work continuing since 1946 on a variety of designs.
P.84, early design work on a jet-powered basic trainer based on the Provost trainer, covered by Spec T.16/48.
Other Work:
Development and design of new internal bomb racks for the Westminster B.Mk.I to accommodate new bomb sizes to meet Spec B.9/47.
Dr. Barnes Wallis at Weybridge is working on variable-geometry wings, undertaking wind tunnel tests at the RAE.
Dr. Barnes Wallis is also working on the application of variable-geometry wings on a Guided Anti-Aircraft Projectile (GAP), codenamed Green Lizard and a scale model research programme called Wild Goose, which should begin during 1950.
Subsidiary Normalair Ltd., Yeovil, founded in 1941 by Westland Aircraft Ltd. and General Aircraft Ltd. to develop and manufacture pressure-cabins and associated equipment such as air-conditioning and oxygen systems. Now owned by BCAC (51%) and Blackburn Group (49%).
Subsidiary A.B.C. Motors Ltd., Walton-on-Thames, manufactures auxiliary power-units, including the Type II horizontally-opposed 2-cyl engine used in flying boats, and electrical generators.
Shareholding Hunting Group has several aviation related companies; Hunting Aviation undertakes aircraft repair and maintenance at Luton and commercial work is undertaken by Hunting Air Travel Ltd., Hunting Aerosurveys Ltd. and Aerofilms Ltd.

Bristol Aero-Engine Company Ltd.
Works: Fishponds, Bristol.
Types Currently in Production:
Hercules XXII, 1,770hp, 14-cyl two-row sleeve-valve radial engine, civilian engine, certified 1943.
Hercules IX, 1,675hp, civilian engine, certified 1943.
Hercules X, 1,950hp, certified 1944.
Hercules XXIII, 1,675hp, certified 1944.
Hercules XXV, 1,925hp, certified 1945.
Hercules XXVI, 1,925hp, civilian version of XXV, certified 1945.
Hercules XXIV, 1,715hp, certified 1946.
Hercules XXVII, 2,040hp, certified 1946.
Hercules XXVIII, 2,040, civilian version of XXVII, certified 1946.
Centaurus V, 2,500hp, 18-cyl two-row sleeve-valve radial engine, 2-speed centrifugal single stage supercharger, certified 1942, parts for spares still available.
Centaurus VIII, 2,470hp, certified 1944.
Centaurus IX, 2,470hp, civilian version of VIII, certified 1944.
Centaurus X, 2,625hp, certified 1945.
Centaurus XI, 2,625hp, civilian version of X, certified 1945.
Centaurus XII, 2,625hp, civilian version of X with different supercharger, certified 1945.
Centaurus XIII, 2,450hp, civilian engine, certified 1946.
Centaurus XIV, 3,220hp, fitted in direct-injection fuel system, certified 1947.
Twin Centaurus I, 5,000hp, 36-cyl four-row sleeve-valve radial engine, variable speed centrifugal single stage supercharger, basically two Centaurus VIII in tandem, each half driving one contra-rotating propeller, certified 1945
Twin Centaurus II, 5,250hp, improved version with lighter gearbox and modified supercharger, certified 1947.
Theseus II, 2,200ehp, production version, the company's first gas-turbine design, 8-stage axial compressor followed by a single centrifugal stage, 8 combustion chambers, 3-stage turbine, a novel feature is the use of a heat exchanger to transfer exhaust waste heat to the compressor exit, certified 28 January 1945.
Types in Development:
Proteus I, 3,780ehp, two spool, reverse-flow gas turbine turboprop, 2-spool 12-stage axial compressor followed by a single centrifugal stage, reverse-flow combustors and 2-stage power (free turbine) and 2-stage turbine driving compressor, bench testing began 25 January 1946, flight trials began June 1947.
Proteus II, 3,900ehp, improved variant planned to be production model, certification planned for 1949.
Design Work:
B.Ol.1 Olympus, was initially the BE.10, early design work on a two-spool axial-flow turbojet initially for 9,000lb thrust with growth potential for 12,000lb, bench tests to begin in 1950.
Research into ramjet propulsion.

Blackburn Group
The Dumbarton works is run jointly with William Denny & Bros. Ltd. In 1944 Blackburn acquired General Aircraft Ltd. to form the Blackburn Group, along with Blackburn Engines Ltd. (formerly the Cirrus Division of Blackburn Aircraft).
Blackburn Aircraft Ltd.
Works: Brough, East Yorkshire; Dumbarton, Dunbartonshire and Feltham, Middlesex.
Types Currently in Production:
GAL.42 Cygnet II, two seat light cabin aircraft powered by a 145hp Blackburn Cirrus Major II, still available
GAL.45 Owlet, two seat trainer variant of the GAL.42 with tandem open cockpits, still available.
Types in Development:
B.100 Beverley C.Mk.I, cargo/94-troop carrying transport, initially the private-venture Universal Carrier but adapted to meet Spec C4./46, prototype first flown 20 June 1947, 72 on order for planned delivery from early 1949.
Design Work:
B.76, design work on a commercial freighter
B.77, design work on a series of 12-14 passenger four-engined feederliners
Y.B.2/ Handley Page H.P.88, a scale-model H.P.80 developed under Spec E.6/48 for aerodynamic research with the ‘crescent wing’. Detail design and production to be sub-contracted from Handley Page Ltd., first flight due mid-1950.
Blackburn Transonic Aircraft, Blackburn in 1947 took over Professor G.T.R. Hill’s work on variable sweep wings and from his early designs developed this design with side intakes (which open wider at low-speed flight) and V-tail and a mid-mounted variable sweep wing with the pivots in thick wingroots and powered by a single reheated Avon.
Other Work:
Subsidiary Normalair Ltd., Yeovil, founded in 1941 by Westland Aircraft Ltd. and General Aircraft Ltd. to develop and manufacture pressure-cabins and associated equipment such as air-conditioning and oxygen systems. Now owned by BCAC (51%) and Blackburn Group (49%).
Blackburn Engines Ltd.
Works: Brough, East Yorkshire.
Types Currently in Production:
Cirrus Major II, 145hp, air-cooled 4-cyl inverted inline engine, certified 1937.
Cirrus Major III, 135hp, certified 1942.
Cirrus Minor II, 100hp, air-cooled 4-cyl inverted inline engine, certified 1942.
Cirrus Bombardier I 203hp, air-cooled 4-cyl inverted inline engine, military version, certified 1947.
Cirrus Bombardier II 180hp, civilian version, certified 1947.
Design Work:
Design work has begun on gas turbine auxiliary power units, bench tests planned for 1949.

Hawker Siddeley Group
Since its formation in September 1935 the Hawker Siddeley Group has been the largest and of the “Big Three” conglomerates in the British aeronautical industry. It controls the interests of four aircraft manufacturers and one aero engine manufacturer and owns a large portion of the nation’s aviation private R&D facilities. Since 1935 centralisation has been increasing, current plans foresee the merger of the Gloster design team at Hucclecote with Hawker’s staff at Kingston-Upon-Thames. All civilian and heavy military aircraft design will be concentrated with Avro at Woodford. In 1945 G. & J. Weir Ltd. were acquired and merged with Saro and relocated to at new site at Weston-Super-Mare. The Hawker Siddeley Group consists of; A.V. Roe (including its Canadian subsidiary Avro Canada), Hawker, Gloster, Armstrong Whitworth, Saunders-Roe (Saro), Armstrong Siddeley and Air Service Training Ltd.

A.V. Roe Aircraft Ltd.
Works: Chadderton and Woodford, Lancashire
Types Currently in Production:
711 Tudor III, 60-seat export variant of the Tudor II, no current orders but production line open.
711A Trader, freighter variant of the Tudor III, current orders fulfilled but production line open.
700 Ashton, feederliner, current orders being fulfilled include several private orders.
design work to meet Spec E.15/48 issued to Avro for three one-third scale flying prototypes of the 698 Shackleton GR.Mk.I, land-based long-range maritime patrol aircraft, first of three prototypes, VW126, first flown on 9 March 1946, current orders for 146 aircraft, first production aircraft, VP254, flew on 23 October 1947. Production completed November 1948.
Types in Development:
701 Athena, three prototypes currently testing, developed to meet Spec T.7/45 for a turboprop-powered three-seat advanced trainer, prototypes VM125 first flown 12 June 1946 with a 1,000ehp Mamba I; VM129 with a 1,400shp RB.53 Dart I on 20 September 1946 and VW890 with a 1,475ehp Mamba 3 on 1 August 1947.
705 Tudor V, conversion of second Tudor I prototype G-AGST with four 5,000lb Rolls-Royce RB.41 Nene III turbojets in two nacelles to meet Spec E.6/47 for a jet-powered specialist flight research aircraft, first flown by J.H. ‘Jimmy’ Orrell on 6 September 1948.
Design Work:
Avro 698, design work to meet Spec B.35/46 for a jet-powered heavy bomber. Design features a delta wing. Formally selected for further development to meet OR.229 in early 1948.
Avro 707, design work to meet Spec E.15/48 issued to Avro for three one-third scale flying prototypes of the Type 698, one for high-speed and two for low-speed research. To be powered by a single Rolls-Royce Derwent and use off-the-shelf components to reduce development time and cost, the first prototype is due to fly in mid-1949.
Avro 708, airliner, design work meet Spec P.5/46 for a jet-powered Long-Range Empire Aircraft for BOAC, stopped late 1947.
Avro 710, design work on a one-tenth scale flying prototype of the Type 698.
Avro 713, design work on a metrological reconnaissance version of the 698 Shackleton with a crew of 9 and 77,000lb AUW.
Other Work:
Lancaster B.Mk.I deep maintenance contracts and modernisation with newer radio equipment.
Lancaster B.Mk.I conversions as turbojet and propeller-turbine testbeds.

Hawker Aviation Ltd.
Works: Kingston-on Thames, Surrey and Dunsfold, Surrey.
Types Currently in Production:
Sea Fury T.Mk.II, two-seat fighter-trainer variant, 60 ordered for the FAA in 1945, production completed October 1947.
Cyclone F.Mk.I, a day fighter powered by the 3,500hp Rolls-Royce Eagle H-24 piston engine, the prototype, RB702, first flew 15 September 1945, current orders cover 150 aircraft, production aircraft being delivered during June-November 1947.
Types in Development:
P.1040 Sea Hawk, naval day fighter with the Rolls-Royce RB.41 Nene turbojet, a private-venture now covered by Spec N.6/45, first prototype, VP401, first flown 2 September 1946, fully navalised prototypes VP413 and VP433 flown during 1947, current orders for 95 aircraft. On August 1 1948 VP401 won the SBAC Challenge Cup at a speed of 510mph flown by Sqn Ldr Trevor ‘Wimpy’ Wade. Production aircraft will have revised wing span, tailplane area and canopies.
P.1052, an experimental swept-wing variant of P.1040, covered by Spec E.38/46, 2 prototypes and structural test airframe on order, first prototype VX272 flown 19 November 1947 and the second, VX279, flown 13 April 1948. On 13 May Sqn Ldr Trevor ‘Wimpy’ Wade made a London-to-Paris record of 2 1minutes 27 seconds giving an average of 617.9mph in VX272.
Design Work:
P.1054, design work to meet Spec F.43/46 for a high-speed high-altitude jet-powered day interceptor, work stopped in late 1947 in favour of later designs.
Hawker P.1064, design work to Spec F.4/48, a re-issue of Spec F.43/46, compared to the P.1054 aerodynamic refinement was not allowed to compromise a simple structure. The swept wings now in the low-position and the AJ.65 Avon engines moved behind cockpit with side intakes and a new T-tail fitted. Armament is three 30mm ADEN in nose.
Hawker P.1065, design work to Spec F.3/48, a re-issue of Spec F.43/46, similar to P.1064 but with single Avon engine with cutback intakes and tail jet-pipe, provision for a 2,000lb Snarler rocket.
Hawker P.1067, design work to Spec F.3/48, a re-issue of Spec F.43/46, based on P.1065 but with
a single Avon or Sapphire turbojet and design based on development data from the P.1052, P.1072 and P.1081.
P.1081, a proposed service fighter development of P.1052 with a 6,250lb RB.44 Tay I turbojet with reheat, Spec E.18/47 issued to cover development, first flight planned mid-1949.

Gloster Aircraft Ltd.
Works: Hucclecote, Gloucestershire
Types Currently in Production:
G.41 Meteor F.Mk.IV, current orders for 465 for the RAF, first production aircraft flown September 1946, export orders from Argentina (100 F.Mk.41), Bulgaria (25 F.Mk.43), Egypt (15 F.Mk.51) and Yugoslavia (17 F.Mk.42). RAF orders completed May 1948. Also contract signed in 1946 for licence-construction with Avions Fairey, aircraft produced under sub-contract by SABCA as the S.51.
Meteor FR.Mk.V, photo-reconnaissance variant of the F.Mk.IV, 50 on order, production aircraft delivered March-July 1947.
G.45 Sea Meteor FSN.Mk.VI, naval fighter-bomber variant powered by two Rolls-Royce RB.50 Trent turboprops, orders for 100 aircraft, production during May-November 1946, export order from Australian RANAS (20).
Types in Development:
Meteor F.Mk.VIII, an improved design with the nose extended 30ins to improve directional stability and a new tail unit to maintain the c.g., a Martin-Baker ejection seat is also fitted, the first prototype, VT130, first flown 12 October 1948. Current orders for 450 aircraft.
AXP-1001, long-range day fighter powered by a 5,000lb Rolls-Royce RB.41 Nene III turbojet, designed in co-operation with FMA to meet Argentine requirements, in July 1946 3 prototypes were ordered, first prototype flown 14 July 1948. Two more to fly during 1949, the third to be assembled and flown in Argentina.
Design Work:
Several Meteor improvements under consideration including reconnaissance variants.

Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft Ltd.
Works: Baginton, Coventry, Warwickshire
Types Currently in Production:
Meteor T.Mk.VII, production version of private-venture Meteor Trainer for the RAF and FAA under Spec T.1/47, initial orders cover 200, the first production aircraft flew in August 1947, export orders from Argentina (12 T.Mk.46), Belgium (10 T.Mk.47), Bulgaria (2 T.Mk.45), and Yugoslavia (8 T.Mk.44).
Meteor NF.Mk.XI, night-fighter variant to meet Spec F.5/46, converted T.Mk.VII VW413 first flown 31 May 1947, current orders for 100 aircraft, export order from Bulgaria (NF.Mk.45). Deliveries to RAF during March 1948-April 1949.
Types in Development:
A.W.52, a laminar-flow flying wing research aircraft powered by two Rolls-Royce RB.41 Nene turbojets, covered by Spec E.9/44, first prototype TS363 flown on 13 November 1947, second prototype, TS368, flown 1 September 1948.
Design Work:
Meteor NF.Mk.XII, an improved variant of NF.Mk.XI, covered by F.24/46, first flight planned 1949.
Transonic and variable-geometry wing design studies.
Project 502, early design work on a naval surface-to-air GAP as a development of the LOP/GAP system in a consortium with Sperry Gyro and General Electric.
Other Work:
RAF repair and overhaul contracts.

Saunders-Roe Ltd. (Saro)
Works: Columbine Works, East Cowes, Isle of Wight and Weston-Super-Mare, Somerset
Types Currently in Production:
Types in Development:
W.11 Air Horse, three-rotor heavy helicopter powered by a Rolls-Royce Merlin, prototype G-ALCV first flown 7 December 1945, crop dusting and RAF load carrying trials underway.
W.14 Skeeter, small two-seater helicopter, first prototype powered by a 106hp Jameson FF-1 engine flown 8 October 1946, the Skeeter 2 powered by a 145hp DH Gipsy Major 10 with a new circular cross-section tail boom and new larger diameter three-bladed rotor flown December 1947.
SR.45 Princess, super-sized flying boat for 220 passengers, powered by four 5,000hp Bristol Twin Centaurus piston engines, designed to meet Spec P.4/42, the prototype, G-ALUN, flown 22 August 1947. 3 on order for BOAC with interest from the RAF in a troop/cargo carrying version.
Saro SR.A/1, jet-propelled flying boat fighter, covered by Spec E.6/44, powered by a 5,000lb Rolls-Royce RB.41 Nene III, first prototypeTG263 flown 16 May 1947, second prototype TG267 on 30 April 1948 and third prototype TG271 fitted with a 6,250lb RB.44 Tay flew on 17 August 1948. Current orders for 100 aircraft, production to begin in mid-1949.
P.104, four-engine maritime reconnaissance and anti-submarine flying boat, designed to meet Spec R.2/45, the first of two prototypes flown on 26 May 1948.
Design Work:
W.11T, a variant of the W.11 with a longer fuselage and aerodynamic improvements. Also a crop spraying variant to meet Spec H.10/48.
W.14 Skeeter 3, an improved variant for trials, two aircraft to complete in 1949.
SR.55 Duchess, a 74-seat flying boat powered by six de Havilland Ghost turbojets designed to meet Spec P.6/46, prototype G-ALUR planned to fly in late 1949. BOAC interest in up to ten aircraft.
P.123, design work on a 120,000lb 148ft span flying boat with four piston or turbine-propeller engines.
Other Work:
Subsidiary, Saro Laminated Wood Products Ltd., based at Folly Works, Whippingham, Isle of Wight.
Production of Betalight; tubes of borosilicate glass which are coated inside with a fluorescent powder which glows as a result of the ionizing radiation of the tritium gas contained inside, the tube emits light for 15 years, used to illuminate flight instruments, exit signs and corridors of Saro aircraft.
An Electronics Division formed in 1948 to develop analogue computers, control simulators and electronic equipment and test sets for guided weapons research.

Armstrong Siddeley Motors Ltd.
Works: Coventry, Warwickshire
Types Currently in Production:
Cheetah XX, 475hp, 7-cyl single-row radial, certified 1942.
Cheetah XVII, 385hp, certified 1943.
Cheetah XIX, 385hp, direct drive variant of XVII, certified 1944.
ASP.3 Python 3, 3,670ehp (inc. 1,180lb exhaust thrust), turboprop with 14-stage axial compressor, 11 combustion chambers and 2-stage turbine, development of the ASX turbojet, ASP.1 first run April 1944, ASP.3 entered production in February 1946.
ASP.4 Python 4, 4,110ehp, improved variant, certified in September 1947.
ASM.1 Mamba 1, 1,000ehp, turboprop with 10-stage axial compressor, 6 combustion chambers and 2-stage turbine, certified in 1945.
ASM.3 Mamba 3, 1,475ehp, production variant, passed 500-hour test during 1947.
Types in Development:
ASSa.1 Sapphire, 7,500lbs, development began 1943, 13-stage axial compressor with annular combustor and 2-stage turbine, during tests in 1947 the engine reliably produced around 7,500lbs thrust making it the most powerful British turbojet.
ASSa.5 Sapphire, 7,500lbs, production version of ASSa.1, to be ready for 1949.
ASM.6 Mamba 6, 1,770ehp, improved variant, certification due by end 1949.
ASA.1 Adder, 1,050lbs,a pure-jet variant of the ASM.1 Mamba developed as an “expendable engine” for use on target drones, first bench tests began November 1948, flight trials planned to begin in 1949 in the tail of an Avro Lancaster.
ASV.1 Viper, 1,200lbs, design work on an 7-stage axial compressor based on the ASA.1 Adder, bench tests began December 1948.
ASMD.1 Double Mamba, 2,950ehp, coupled engine development of ASM.2 driving contra-rotating propellers through a combining gearbox, one engine can be shut down in flight to conserve fuel, bench tests began in 1948 and certification is planned for 1949.
Design Work:
ASV.2 Viper, 1,500lbs, design work on an 1,500lb thrust variant (ASV.2), to begin bench tests in 1949.
ASSn.1 Snarler, 2,000lb, oxygen/methanol/water rocket, first British liquid-fuelled rocket engine, the turbopump is externally driven from the gearbox of the parent aircraft’s turbojet, flight testing to begin by 1950.

National Electronic Engineering Limited (NEE)
Formed in 1940 by the merger of English Electric, Napier & Son, Napier-Paxman and Paxman. In 1944 it acquired Alvis Car and Engineering Company Ltd. and in 1945 acquired the Marconi Company to become the biggest electrical engineering, industrial engineering and electronics manufacturer in Britain.
Works: Elton, Lancashire (Alvis Leonides production) and Acton, London (Napier and Napier-Paxman aircraft engine production)
Types Currently in Production:
Alvis Leonides II, 520hp, 9-cyl single-row radial engine with single speed, single stage supercharger, certified 1942.
Leonides III, 550hp, certified 1944.
Leonides IV, 540hp, and IV/7A, 560hp, certified 1947.
Leonides V, 550hp, certified 1947.
Leonides VI, 500hp, Model III variant designed for use in helicopters, certified 1944.
Leonides VI/2, 540hp, improved Model VI with features from Model IV, certified 1946.
Leonides VI, 570hp, designed for use in helicopters, certified 1947.
Leonides VII/2, 540hp, down-rated Model VI for improved reliability over Model VI/2, certified 1948.
Leonides Major, 875hp, 14-cyl two-row radial engine with single speed, single stage medium supercharger, based on Leonides components, certified 1947.
Leonides Major II, 850hp, certified 1948.
Leonides Major III, 850hp, variant designed for use in helicopters, certified 1948.
Sabre VII, 3,500hp, based on Mk. VI with water/methanol injection and a new two-stage, two-speed centrifugal supercharger and gearing for contra-rotating propellers, certified 1945.
Sabre VIII 3,000hp, strengthened Mk. VI with water/methanol injection and larger supercharger impeller, certified 1945.
Napier-Paxman Prometheus I, 3,580hp, 24-cyl X-24 liquid-cooled diesel-fuelled piston engine with single-stage, two-speed centrifugal supercharger, certified 1943, still available for production.
N.Na.1 Naiad, 1,500shp plus 241lb, single-shaft axial-flow turboprop with 5 combustion chambers, certified 1946.
Types in Development:
Napier E.127 Nymph, 500shp, single-shaft turboprop, bench tested during 1945, not yet ready for production and with low development priority.
N.Na.2 Coupled Naiad, 3,000shp (estimated), two coupled N.Na.1 with common gearbox and propeller drive, bench testing began in 1948.
N.Nm.1 Nomad I, 2,000hp, compound diesel engine combining a piston engine with a turbine to recover energy from the exhaust and improve fuel economy, contra-rotating propellers driven by mechanically independent stages, the diesel engine is a liquid-cooled horizontally-opposed 12-cyl two-stroke valveless engine, the turbine driven by exhaust gases has three-stages and drives both crankshaft and a 12-stage axial flow compressor axial compressor, the complete unit will first ran in October 1948 and will be test-flown next year.
N.Nm.2 Nomad II, 3,000hp, began bench tests in December in 1948.
NRE.7, liquid fuelled expendable rocket engine for guided weapons
Design Work:
N.Nm.3 Nomad 6, 3,000hp, early design work on a simpler Nomad with an extra stage to the axial compressor/supercharger, eliminating the separate centrifugal compressor and the intercooler, an additional turbine stage will drive the compressor and feedback any excess power to the main shaft, the separate propeller from the turbine is deleted, the result will be a smaller, lighter and considerably simpler single engine driving a single propeller.
N.El.3 Eland, 3,000ehp (estimated), 10-stage axial flow turboprop with 6 combustion chambers, to begin bench testing in 1949. A coupled Double Eland is also planned with 6,000ehp (estimated).
Other Work:
Research into ramjet propulsion.
The Industrial Electronics Division at Stafford, Lancashire, produces a variety of products, including the Igniscope, a revolutionary design of ignition tester for petrol engines, supplied as Type UED to the RAF, RCAF and RAAF.


Saturday, June 17th 2017, 2:17pm

British Aircraft Industry (Part 2)

Independent Companies

Abbott-Baynes Sailplanes Ltd.
Works: Wrecclesham, Farnham, Surrey.
Types Currently in Production:
Abbott-Baynes Scud 2, glider
Abbott-Baynes Scud 3, glider
Carden-Baynes Auxiliary, motorglider

Aero Engines Ltd.
Works: Kingswood, Bristol.
Types Currently in Production:
Dryad, 40hp 2-cyl opposed air-cooled engine.
Sprite, 23hp 2-cyl opposed air-cooled engine.
Pixie, 50hp 4-cyl inverted inline air-cooled engine, former Weir design.

F.M. Aspin & Company Ltd. Ltd.
Works: Bury, Lancashire.
Types Currently in Production:
Aspin, 4-cyl horizontally-opposed engine, each cylinder has a rotating conical head containing a valve port which opens the inlet and exhaust alternately, certified 1938.
Other Work
Development and manufacture of auxiliary power-units for large aircraft.
Manufacture of engines and gearboxes for the automotive industry.

Auster Aircraft Ltd.
Works: Rearsby Aerodrome, Leicestershire.
Types Currently in Production:
J-1 Autocrat, 3-seat light aircraft, first flown 1943, powered by a 90hp Blackburn Cirrus Minor II, the J-1A variant has a higher all-up weight.
J-2 Arrow, two-seat aerobatic variant of the J-1, first flown 1943, powered by a 75hp Continental C-75-12.
J-4 Arrow, a variant of the J-2 with a 90hp Cirrus Minor I, first flown 1944.
M-1, Auster GR.Mk.I, light spotter aircraft powered by a 130hp Blackburn Cirrus Major developed to meet Spec A.2/43, prototype first flown June 1944, 150 ordered for RAF, deliveries during July 1945-May 1946, export order for Netherlands (80).
J-1N Alpha, 4-seat J-1 variant, first flown May 1945, powered by a 130hp DH Gipsy Major I.
J-1B Aiglet, an improved J-1A for the agricultural role with crop spraying equipment under the wings, powered by a 130hp DH Gipsy Major I, first flown 20 June 1946.
J-5 Autocar, a 4-seat development of the J-1A/J-1B with increased fuel capacity and a 155hp Blackburn Cirrus Major III engine, first flown 9 August 1946. Further variants include; J-5G export version of the basic J-5; J-5H with a Blackburn Cirrus Major II; J-5P with a de Havilland Gipsy Major I and the J-5V with a 160hp Lycoming O-320.
J-3 Atom, a lower-powered variant of the J-2 with a 65hp Continental C-65-12 engine, first flown 26 May 1946, a second prototype flew in September 1947.
J-5 Adventurer, a J-1A variant with a 130hp DH Gipsy Major I engine, prototype first flown 15 November 1947, intended for export to the Commonwealth.
Types in Development:
Auster J-5 variants under study and flight test with new features.
Design Work:
J-5A Cropduster, a J-5 for the agricultural role with crop spraying equipment under the wings.
J-5F Aiglet Trainer, an aerobatic version of the J-1B, to be powered by a DH Gipsy Major I or a Blackburn Cirrus Major III engine, first flight is planned for 1949.
J-5 Aiglet Trainer, a 4-seat aerobatic development of the J-5 Autocar, first flight planned for 1949
B.4, a cargo/ ambulance aircraft based on the J-1 series boom for the tail surfaces and clamshell rear doors, first flight is planned for 1949.

Boulton Paul Aircraft Ltd.
Works: Wolverhampton, West Midlands.
Types Currently in Production:
BCAC Wyvern F.Mk.IV, sub-contract to build 10 pre-production aircraft and 150 production aircraft built between February 1947-April 1948.
Types in Development:
P.108 Balliol, turboprop-powered two-seat advanced trainer developed to meet Spec T.7/45, also proposed as a naval variant with arrestor hook and folding wings, first prototype VL892 with a 1,000ehp Armstrong Siddeley Mamba I turboprop first flown 24 March 1946, second prototype VL917 with a 1,475ehp Mamba 3 flown 24 March 1947 and the third navalised prototype flown 26 September 1947. Currents orders for 177 for the RAF (T.Mk.1) and 30 for the FAA (T.Mk.21). Production to begin in early 1949.
Boulton Paul Balliol T.Mk.1 and Sea Balliol T.Mk.21
Design Work:
P.111, design work to meet Spec E.27/46 for an experimental delta wing aircraft for transonic research for the RAE Delta Wing Research Programme, to be fully tailless using elevons along the wing trailing edge and powered by one Rolls-Royce RB.41 Nene turbojet, first flight now planned mid-1949.
P.117, design work on a wing-controlled aerodyne.
P.118, design work on a swept-wing research aircraft powered by a single Rolls-Royce RB.41 Nene.
P.119, design work on a private-venture jet-powered advanced trainer with side-by-side seating and powered by a single Rolls-Royce RB.41 Nene.
Other Work:
Design, development and manufacture of powered aircraft control systems.
Design, development and manufacture of powered defensive gun turrets and gun mounts for aircraft.
Design, development and manufacture of electronics including computers, Boulton Paul Electronics Ltd. formed in 1948.
Company has a 51% stake in Martin-Baker Aircraft Co. Ltd. which is now embarking on ejection-seat research and development.

Chilton Aircraft Ltd.
Works: Heston Airport, Middlesex.
Types Currently in Production:
D.W.2, two-seat light cabin aircraft, still available
Olympian, glider based on the Olympia Meise but with a stronger spar.
Other Work:
Owns Carden Aero Engines Co., builds engines for ultralight aircraft based on the Ford Ten car engine; 40hp S.P.1 and the 31hp Carden-Ford.

Chrislea Aircraft Co. Ltd.
This company ceased trading in September 1947.

Cunliffe-Owen Aircraft Ltd.
Works: Swaythling, Southampton.
Types Currently in Production:
Concordia, private venture 12-seat airliner, first flown 19 May 1945, only 4 built since then but still available, talks with the Belgian COGEA company have not resulted in orders so far.
Other Work:
Repair and depot-level maintenance contracts with the FAA covering all combat-aircraft based in Britain.

Dart Aircraft Ltd.
Works: Dunstable, Bedfordshire (premises shared with Hawkridge Aircraft Company).
Types Currently in Production:
Zander & Weyl Cambridge, single-seat sailplane based on the Grunau Baby.
Kitten II, single-seat ultralight, first flown 1937.
Design Work:
Kitten III, single-seat ultralight, to fly before 1950.
Other Work:
Manufacture of replicas of historic aircraft for private owners and film work.

Flettner UK Ltd.
British agent for sales of Flettner helicopters designed and built in Germany.
Works: Heston Airport, Middlesex
Types Currently in Production:
None, supply of spares for the Fl-282 Hummingbird fleet only.

General Aviation (UK) Ltd.
Formed in early 1944 by the pooling of the aviation interests of Parnall Aircraft Ltd., which owned the patents, patent rights and designs of Nash & Thompson Ltd. and the Hendy Aircraft Co., with those of Portsmouth Aviation. In March 1947 the Navarro Aircraft Construction Company also merged with the company to secure capital and construction facilities for the Tribian Sponson.
Works: Portsmouth Airport, Hampshire and Yate, Gloucestershire
Types Currently in Production:
Aerocar, 5/6-seat light passenger and cargo aircraft, the Aerocar Major has two 155hp Blackburn Cirrus Major II and retractable undercarriage and the Aerocar Senior has fixed undercarriage, manual flaps and simpler flight instruments and equipment, prototype first flown 18 June 1945, current orders include 6 more for Portsmouth, Southsea & Isle of Wight Aviation, 6 for Morton Air Services and several private orders.
Tribian Sponson, 6-seat amphibian powered by two 155hp Blackburn Cirrus Major III or 145hp DH Gipsy Major X engines, prototype first flown 20 March 1947, production began in May 1948 for several private orders.
Types in Development:
Aerocar, flight trials on further developments with floats and skis.
Other Work:
Maintenance and repair services at Portsmouth, includes contract with Portsmouth, Southsea & Isle of Wight Aviation.
Design and manufacture of powered-gun turrets for aircraft by Nash & Thompson Ltd. at Yate.

Hawkridge Aircraft Company
Works: Dunstable, Bedfordshire (premises shared with Dart Aircraft Ltd.).
Types Currently in Production:
Dagling, primary glider, under licence.
Grunau Baby, glider, under licence.
Kittiwake, glider, a converted Slingsby Gull 3.
Venture BGA-640, glider, first flown 1947.
Other Work:
Maintenance and repair of gliders.

Heston Aircraft Company Ltd.
Works: Heston Airport, Middlesex.
Types Currently in Production:
Types in Development:
HC.6, two-seat spotter aircraft with a DH Gipsy engine in a pusher configuration, designed to meet Spec A.2/43, no contract awarded but prototype flew August 1945 and now the company is looking for export or civil sales.
Other Work:
Sub-contract work for de Havilland for structural elements.

Jameson Aero Engines Ltd.
Works: Swell, Surrey.
Types Currently in Production:
Jameson 1, 100hp, 4-cyl four-stroke piston engine, certified 1945.

Martin-Baker Aircraft Company Ltd.
Boulton Paul owns a majority 51% stake in the company.
Works: Denham, Buckinghamshire and Chalgrove Airfield, Oxfordshire.
Types Currently in Production:
Other Work:
Research, development and manufacture of ejection-seats for aircraft and other life-saving devices for pilots.

Miles Aircraft Ltd.
Works: Woodley, Berkshire.
Types Currently in Production:
M.28 Mercury, 4-seat cabin light aircraft, first flown 11 July 1940, engines choices are a 130hp DH Gipsy Major I or 140hp DH Gipsy Major II or 145hp Gipsy Major IIA or a 150hp Blackburn Cirrus Major III. Also built as the Messenger C.Mk.I for the RAF. In 1945 a licence agreement was signed with Egyptian Heliopolis Aircraft Works to build the type as the Gomhouria, now also available as a trainer.
M.60 Marathon, 20-seat feederliner, developed to meet Spec P.2/41 for BEA, prototype first flown 19 May 1943, all current orders now fulfilled but still available for sale.
M.65 Gemini, four seat twin-engined touring aircraft, engine choice of two 100hp Blackburn Cirrus Minor or 145hp Gipsy Major 10 or 155hp Cirrus Major 3 engines, first flown 26 October 1943.
M.57 Aerovan, private venture small cargo carrying aircraft for 6 passengers or 2,240lbs cargo, prototype first flown 16 March 1944, production now ended in favour of the M.71.
M.71 Merchantman, private venture feederliner/ cargo aircraft with triple fins and the wings of the M.60 with a new fuselage based on the M.57 Aerovan, can seat 20 passengers, prototype first flown 7 August 1945, current orders being fulfilled include 4 for Malayan Airways Ltd., 2 for Kenyan Air Services and 2 more for Burma and Malaya Air Services Ltd.
M.68 Boxcar, private venture cargo aircraft designed to carry a removable transport container, prototype first flown 22 August 1945. Production now ended in favour of the M.71.
Types in Development:
M.52, jet-powered supersonic research aircraft developed under Spec E.24/43, first prototype RT133 powered by a 5,000lb Rolls-Royce RB.41 Nene II first flown 18 March 1946 second prototype RT134 incorporating a reheat jetpipe (No.4 36in augmenter), first flown 4 June 1946 and achieved Mach 1.38 on 10 October 1946 (destroyed 24 November 1946), third prototype RT135 with No.5 44in augmenter first flown 24 September 1946 and achieved Mach 1.60 on 3 February 1947.
M.73 Herald, private venture enlarged Marathon with a pressurised cabin for 36-44 passengers but also fully convertible to full and mixed cargo carrying, powered by four 875hp Alvis Leonides Major engines, first prototype G-AODE flown 24 April 1948. Current orders; 25 for BEA, 12 for Burma and Malaya Air Services Ltd., 2 for Elder Colonial Airways and 6 for Malayan Airways Ltd.
Design Work:
M.69 Marathon II; a variant of the M.60 powered by two Armstrong Siddeley Mamba turboprops but lacking pressurisation to avoid necessity to design a new fuselage, first flight planned July 1949.
M.74, a two-seat basic trainer, lost Spec T.16/45 but still in development as export type.
M.75 Aries, an improved M.65 fitted with 155hp Blackburn Cirrus Major III engines, first flight planned for 1949.

Reid and Sigrist Ltd.
Works: New Malden, Surrey and Desford, Leicestershire.
Types in Development
R.S.3 Desford, twin-engined 3-seat advanced trainer, powered by two 130hp de Havilland Gipsy Major I engines, prototype G-AGOS first flown 9 July 1945, no production order but line could be opened, G-AGOS as VZ728 is being used by the Institute of Aviation Medicine for research.
R.S.4 Bobsleigh, an R.S.3 conversion with a prone pilot station in the fuselage nose, first flown in May 1948.
Other Work:
Manufacture of precision aircraft instrumentation, notably turn and slip indicators invented by George Reid, the Gyorizon (combined turn indicator and artificial) and 3-axis gyroscopes at New Malden.
Operation of a civilian flying training school at Desford.
Repair contracts with the RAF, work undertaken at Desford.

Rolls-Royce Ltd.
Works: Derby, Derbyshire; Crewe, Cheshire, Glasgow, Lanarkshire and Barnoldswick, Lancashire.
Types Currently in Production:
Merlin IX, 1,760hp, 12-cyl V-12 inline engine, two-stage 2-speed supercharger, certified 1942, parts still in production.
Merlin X, 1,280hp, single-stage single-speed supercharger, improved VI for Avro Tudor, certified 1941, parts still in production.
Merlin XII, 1,760hp, civilian version of IX, certified 1944, parts still in production.
Griffon V, 2,500hp, 12-cyl V-12 inline engine, two-stage 2-speed supercharger, certified 1945.
Griffon VI, 1,960hp, certified 1944.
Griffon VII, 2,245hp, certified 1943.
Eagle II, 3,315hp, 24-cyl H-24 inline engine, two-stage 2-speed supercharger, certified 1944.
Eagle III, 3,500hp, increased compression ratio, certified 1944.
RB.26 Derwent IV, 2,400lb, single-stage dual-entry centrifugal compressor, 10 flow combustors, single-stage axial flow turbine, certified 1944.
Derwent V, 3,500lb, a scaled down RB.41 Nene specifically for the Gloster Meteor, certified 1945.
Derwent VI, 3,600lb, an improved V, certified 1946.
RB.26 Derwent VII, 3,700lb, an improved Derwent V, certificated 1948.
RB.41 Nene I, 4,500lb, an enlarged RB.26 Derwent with minimal changes, first run 27 October 1944, certified 1945.
Nene II, 5,000lb, improved version, certified 1946.
Nene III, 5,000lb, improved version, certified 1947.
RB.50 Trent I, 750shp + 1,250lb, an RB.26 Derwent II with an additional turbine stage driving a reduction gearbox connected to a propeller, a prototype engine ran for 633 hours during bench tests in 1943, first flown in a Gloster Meteor 20 September 1944, entered production June 1945.
RB.39 Clyde I, 4,030ehp, a two-spool turboprop design with a 9-stage axial low-pressure compressor and a single-sided centrifugal high-pressure compressor running on concentric shafts, certified 1945.
Clyde II, 3,020shp + 1,225lb, improved version with new gearbox, certified 1946.
RB.44 Tay I, 6,250lbs, an enlarged RB.41 Nene with reheat, certified 1947.
RB.53 Dart I, 1,400shp + 350lb, turboprop with 2-stage centrifugal compressor, 7 combustion chambers, 3-stage turbine, first bench tests 1945, certified 1946.
Dart II, 1,600shp + 370lb, improved version, certified 1946.
RB.53 Dart III, 1,740shp + 400lb, improved version with water methanol injection for hot and high conditions, certified 1948.
Types in Development:
Dart IV, 1,990shp + 450lb, improved version with higher rated power, certification due by 1950.
Avon R.A.1 & R.A.2 (formerly A.J.65), an axial-flow turbojet and replacement for the RB.41 Nene, a single-spool design with an 8-stage compressor, development began 1945, first bench tests 1947, flight trials began in August 1948 in an Avro Lancaster testbed (two engines in wing nacelles), planned production version for 1949 is R.A.3 to be rated at 6,500lb.
Design Work:
R.B.80/ R.Co.2 Conway I, 10,000lb, development began 1945 as a by-pass turbojet for 5,000lb thrust, since evolved to a larger 9,250lb design, further improvements as the R.Co.2 include a two spool compressor using a 4-stage low-pressure compressor driven by a 2-stage turbine and an 8-stage high-pressure compressor driven by another 2-stage turbine, design work should complete by 1949 and bench testing estimated to begin in late 1950.
RB.53 Dart IV, an improved 1,990shp + 450lbs variant, to begin certification testing in 1949.
A.J.25 Tweed, a coupled turboprop with a planned rating of 2,500shp with both engines driving the common driveshaft, uses many RB.53 components, bench tests to begin in 1950.
Avon, further development work continues on more powerful versions and the incorporation of reheat, the next production model may be ready for 1951 rated at over 7,000lb thrust.

Scottish Aviation Ltd.
Works: Prestwick Airport, South Ayrshire.
Types in Development:
Pioneer, 4-seat short take-off and landing communication aircraft developed to meet Spec A.4/45, the high-wing has extensive flaps and leading edge slats to take-off in 75 yards and land within 65 yards, first prototype VL515 powered by a 240hp de Havilland Gipsy Queen flown 5 November 1947, second prototype VL516 with a 540hp Alvis Leonides IV radial flown 5 May 1948, current order for 80 C.Mk.I aircraft for the RAF, production to commence in early 1949.
Other Work:
Flying school and maintenance contract work at Prestwick.

Short Brothers (Rochester & Bedford) Ltd. and Short & Harland Ltd.
Works: Rochester, Kent; Bedford, Bedforshire and Belfast, County Antrim.
Types Currently in Production:
S.46 Sealand, 5-7 seat light amphibian powered by two 340hp de Havilland Gipsy Queen VII-4 engines, prototype first flown 22 January 1946, current orders being fulfilled include several private orders.
Types in Development:
Design Work:
S.B.1, being designed to meet Spec B.35/46 for a jet-powered heavy bomber, work stopped early 1948.
Commonwealth, airliner being designed to meet Spec P.5/46 for a jet-powered Long-Range Empire Aircraft for BOAC, work stopped mid-1948.
Continuing design and research work on ‘aero-isoclinic’ wing developed by Prof Geoffrey Hill which has all-moving wing tips and a research glider to test the concept.
Other Work:
Short & Harland Ltd. at Belfast undertakes a wide range of other aviation and non-aviation related engineering work.
Subsidiary Pobjoy-Short at Hooton Park, Cheshire, designs and manufacturers auxiliary accessory gearboxes and auxiliary power units in co-operation with Rotol Airscrews Ltd.

Slingsby Sailplanes Ltd.
Works: Kirkbymoorside, North Yorkshire.
Types Currently in Production:
T.13 Petrel, single-seat competition glider, first flown December 1938, still available.
T.7 Cadet TX.Mk.I, single-seat training glider based on the 1936 T.7 Kirkby Cadet, developed to meet Spec T.20/43, total orders for 430 gliders, deliveries began October 1944 and due to complete early 1948.
T.21B Sedbergh TX.Mk.I, 2-seat training glider with side-by-side seating, prototype flown May 1944, 95 ordered for ATC, deliveries began December 1944 and completed in July 1946, the civil variant is the T.21A and is still available.
T.23A Kirby Kite, single-seat sport glider, improved T.6 Kirby Kite, first flown March 1946.
T.8 Cadet TX.Mk.II, single-seat training glider based on the 1937 T.8 Kirkby Tutor with a tapered wing, 83 ordered in 1946, deliveries began June 1946 and due to complete in late 1948.
T.31B Cadet TX.Mk.III, tandem 2-seat development of T.8 Tutor/Cadet TX.2, T.31A prototype flown in 1946, 121 ordered for ATC use, deliveries of production T.31B began November 1947 and due to complete in 1949.
T.30 Prefect, modernised Grunau Baby design, prototype first flown April 1947, 15 ordered by the ATC as the Prefect TX.Mk.I, deliveries began December 1947.
T.26 Kite 2, an improved T.23A Kirby Kite, prototype flown in August 1948.
Types in Development:
T.24 Falcon 4, 2-seat training glider, first of 3 prototypes flown April 1946, offered to ATC but no orders.
T.25 Gull 4, single-seat sports glider, first of 3 prototypes flown October 1947, the last in May 1948.
T.29 Motor Tutor, single-seat motor glider using wings, struts and tail unit of T.8 Kirby Tutor with a new fuselage with a wheeled undercarriage, the T.29A has a 25hp Scott Flying Squirrel and the T.29B a 40hp Aeronca JAP J.99, both prototypes flown during summer 1948.
Design Work:
The T.31 Tandem Tutor, design work on a two-seat development of the T.8 Tutor (Cadet TX.2), the fuselage is based on that of the T.29 Motor Tutor, a T.31A prototype will fly in 1949.

Tipsy Aircraft Company Ltd.
Works: Hanworth Air Park, Feltham, Middlesex.
Types Currently in Production:
Tipsy B, 2-seat light aircraft, open and enclosed cockpit versions, first flown in 1935, licence-production since 1937.
Tipsy Junior, single-seat light aircraft, Belgian prototype OO-TIT first flown 30 June 1946, licence-production began September 1947.


Monday, September 11th 2017, 4:15pm

Updated RAF and FAA order of battle can be found here.