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Saturday, January 7th 2017, 1:28pm

Ejército del Perú - Artillery

Repository for information pertaining to the subject.


Saturday, January 7th 2017, 1:31pm

Field Artillery


The artillery park of the Ejército del Perú is deficient in many respects; far too much of it is made up of obsolescent weapons ill-suited to its present needs. Modern weapons, of diverse origins, are not available in sufficient numbers to completely equip more than a few units. In the wake of the Andean War, while many studies have been undertaken, few procurement decisions have been reached, and fewer guns have reached the troops.

The most numerous of the existing pieces is the 75mm Cañón de campaña Modelo 1909, a Krupp commercial product dating from before the Great War; a few even older Krupp 75mm Cañón de campaña Modelo 1889 – a non-recoil weapon of the 19th Century – are employed as training guns in some garrisons.
As for the Modelo 1909, 132 pieces of the original order of 200 officially remain in service.

Supplementing the stock of Modelo 1909 guns is the 75mm Cañón de campaña Modelo 1912 – the French Canon de campagne de 75mm Modele 1912 Schneider – a weapon sold to the Balkan states prior to the Great War – 48 of which were obtained through circuitous means in the early 1920s. The barrels of the French weapon have been modified to permit both the Modelo 1912 and the Modelo 1909 to use the same ammunition.

To bolster its artillery park in the early 1920s the Ejército del Perú acquired 42 examples of the 120mm Krupp M1905 field howitzer – a stock Krupp design that had been built under license in Japan in considerable numbers. Designated Obús de campaña Modelo 1905/20 these weapons saw considerable service in the Andean War and in border conflicts through the later 1930s.

The most modern piece in the Peruvian artillery park at the outbreak of the Andean War was the Nordish Bofors 75mm m/30 mountain gun, known to the Ejército del Perú as the Cañón de montaña Modelo 1931. This handy weapon, which could be broken down into several loads for carriage by mule, did yeoman service. The first 12 guns were delivered in 1931, followed by a second batch of 28 delivered in 1933, and a third batch of 20 in 1936, deliveries having been delayed until the close of hostilities.


Cañón de campaña Modelo 1909 – 132 pieces in service
Cañón de campaña Modelo 1912 – 48 pieces in service
Obús de campaña Modelo 1905/20 – 42 pieces in service
Cañón de montaña Modelo 1931 – 60 pieces in service


Cañón de campaña Modelo 1909

Caliber: 75mm L/30
Weight in action: 1000 kg
Barrel length: 2.250 meters
Shell weight: 6 kg
Muzzle velocity: 500 meters/second
Elevation: + 16 degrees
Traversing angle: 7 degrees
Maximum firing range: 6,500 meters

Cañón de campaña Modelo 1912

Caliber: 75mm L/25.4
Weight in action: 965 kg
Length of the whole gun: 4.0 meters
Barrel length: 1.905 meters
Shell weight: 6 kg
Muzzle velocity: 500 meters/second
Elevation: + 17 degrees/-8 degrees
Traversing angle: 9 degrees
Maximum firing range: 6,000 meters

Obús de campaña Modelo 1905/20

Caliber: 120mm
Weight in action: 1,125 kg
Barrel length: 1.445 meters
Shell weight: 20 kg
Muzzle velocity: 275 meters/second
Elevation: + 42 degrees
Traversing angle: 5 degrees
Maximum firing range: 5,800 meters

Cañón de montaña Modelo 1931

Caliber: 75mm L/24
Weight in action: 928 kg
Barrel length: 1.80 meters
Shell weight: 6.59 kg
Muzzle velocity: 455 meters/second
Elevation: + 56 degrees/-4 degrees
Traversing angle: 7 degrees
Effective firing range: 9,300 meters


Monday, January 9th 2017, 7:10pm

Anti-aircraft Artillery


The outbreak of the Andean War found the Ejército del Perú woefully deficient in air defense capabilities, there being only a handful of light antiaircraft guns in the hands of field formations and but a single Grupo de Artillería Antiaéreo equipped with heavy guns deployed around the capital. In terms of materiel however its choices were not unreasonable for the period.

The principal light antiaircraft weapon was the 20mm Madsen Model 1930 autocannon, a product of the Danish firm Dansk Industri Syndikat A/S. This was adopted in 1931 as the Cañón automático Madsen Modelo 30, with the first 6 guns arriving in 1932 and a further 19 in 1933. An order was placed in 1934 for additional guns but only 8 were received before further deliveries were embargoed – first due to the Andean conflict and then by border clashes with Colombia. Supplies resumed in 1938, with 42 guns delivered that year, while a third batch of 50 guns was ordered in 1940. With the establishment of the Fabrica de Armas y Municiones del Ejército plans were put in train to commence local production of the Madsen, with 20 guns delivered in 1941, 30 in 1942, 40 in 1943, and 50 in 1944; low rate production is continuing.

As a heavy antiaircraft gun the Ejército had selected the Bofors 75 mm Model 1929, purchasing 15 guns direct from the manufacturer in 1930. These were designated Cañón antiaéreo Modelo 1929. When war came the Ejército found itself unable to obtain additional guns from any source, and the upgrading of its air defense equipment has been an unfulfilled goal for many years.


Cañón automático Madsen Modelo 30

Weight: 55 kg
Length: 2.50 meters
Barrel length: 1.20 meters
Caliber: 20 mm
Cartridge: 20 x 120 mm
Rate of fire: 350 rounds/minute
Muzzle velocity: 790 meters/second
Effective firing range: 500 meters
Maximum firing range: 1,800 meters
Feed system: Drum magazine

Cañón antiaéreo Modelo 1929

Weight: 4,200 kg (travel), 3,300 kg (in action)
Length: 5.90 meters
Barrel length: 2.94 meters
Crew: 6
Caliber: 75mm
Shell weight: 8 kg
Elevation: +80 degrees, - 3 degrees
Traverse: 360 degrees
Muzzle velocity: 750 meters/second
Maximum firing range: 10,000 meters


Thursday, January 12th 2017, 8:51pm

Cañón de campaña Modelo 1939


Among the procurement programs set in train by Galvez government was the refurbishment of the Ejército’s artillery park. Conflicts during the 1930s had shown the Ejército to be woefully deficient in that vital arm. Attempts were made to procure modern guns from Germany but this move proved ultimately unsuccessful; better results were obtained from a mission to Czechoslovakia, where contracts were placed for several new pieces of artillery.

The Skoda Works of Pilsen had developed a series of export designs of which the 75mm E7 was selected by the Ejército del Perú to replace, in part, its stock of light field guns. The E7 was of modern design, with a split trail and could be drawn by horse or motor vehicle. One hundred guns, sufficient for twenty-four batteries, were ordered early in 1944 with the first deliveries commencing in August of that year. Following the fall of the Galvez government the decision was made concentrate future procurement on heavier 105mm howitzers.


Caliber: 75mm L/29.7
Weight in action: 1,425 kg
Shell weight: 7.3 kg
Muzzle velocity: 570 meters/second
Elevation: + 45 degrees/- 6 degrees
Traversing angle: 50 degrees
Maximum firing range: 12,000 meters


Thursday, January 12th 2017, 10:09pm

Cañón-obús de campaña Modelo 1940


The technical mission which visited the Skoda Works at Pilsen was very favorably impressed with the Czech firm’s H3 design for a modern gun-howitzer. Given the need to replace the ancient Obús de campaña Modelo 1905/20 an order for 50 weapons was placed in early 1944, and the first were delivered that autumn. The Odria government placed subsequent contracts, with the intention of standardizing on the Modelo 1940 as the Ejército’s standard light artillery piece; to date, orders stand at 200 weapons, with deliveries continuing. The Modelo 1940 shares a standard mount with the Cañón de campaña Modelo 1939, permitting great savings in spare parts


Caliber: 105mm L/29.8
Weight in action: 1,960 kg
Shell weight: 14.4 kg
Muzzle velocity: 525 meters/second
Elevation: + 70 degrees/- 8 degrees
Traversing angle: 50 degrees
Maximum firing range: 12,200 meters


Thursday, January 12th 2017, 11:15pm

Obús de campaña Modelo 1942


Combat experience had taught the Ejército del Perú the value of heavy artillery – an arm with which it was totally deficient when the nation entered the Andean War and proven again in border clashed with Chile. The Galvez government had entered into negotiations with Italy for supply of its 149/40 Mod 35 heavy howitzer, but these came to naught. The Odria government turned to the Skoda Works and placed orders for a version of its K-series 150mm howitzer, placing an order for 50 pieces – sufficient for twelve batteries – in mid-1945, deliveries of which have begun.


Caliber: 150mm L/24
Weight in action: 5,020 kg
Shell weight: 42.0 kg
Muzzle velocity: 580 meters/second
Elevation: + 70 degrees/- 5 degrees
Traversing angle: 45 degrees
Maximum firing range: 15,100 meters


Friday, January 13th 2017, 1:06am

Cañón de montaña Modelo 1941


The value of mountain artillery had been amply demonstrated in the conflicts of the 1930s and when the Galvez government sent technical missions to Europe acquiring additional quantities of such weapons was a high priority. While the Ejército had hoped to obtain additional weapons of the Bofors type, the technical mission sent to Czechoslovakia reported quite favorably on the Skoda C6 design. After some negotiation a decision to purchase 100 pieces was reached, the first of which arrived late in 1944. While not ousting the much-beloved Cañón de montaña Modelo 1931 the new gun permitted substantial expansion of the mountain artillery, a goal much sought after.


Caliber: 75mm L/22
Weight in action: 820 kg
Barrel length: 1.57 meters
Shell weight: 6.3 kg
Muzzle velocity: 480 meters/second
Elevation: + 70 degrees/- 7 degrees
Traversing angle: 7 degrees
Effective firing range: 10,200 meters


Friday, January 27th 2017, 1:11am

Cañón antitanque Modelo 46

The Belgian firm Fonderie Royale de Canons developed the FRC C 60/L50 D 60mm as a fortress anti-tank cannon capable of destroying tanks at long ranges. It was adapted as a mobile weapon to meet the Netherlands army and subsequently adopted by Belgium, with the first guns being delivered in 1944. The Ejército del Perú placed orders for 100 examples early in 1946, to equip separate antitank artillery units rather than be issued directly to infantry units. The gun features a semi-automatic breech block and is capable of rapid and accurate fire.


Caliber: 60mm
Projectile weight: 3.6 kg (AP)
Muzzle velocity: 910 meters/second
Range: 3,000 meters (effective)
Elevation: -10 to +25
Traverse: 60°
Rate of fire: 15 rounds/minute
Penetration: 99 mm at 300 meters


Friday, January 27th 2017, 4:02am

Cañón antiaéreo medio Modelo 46

One of the immediate needs addressed by the Odría government was the weak state of the nation’s antiaircraft defenses, which had contributed significantly to losses in the conflicts with Chile and Colombia. While some of these weaknesses might be rectified from local resources, a decision was made to procure modern antiaircraft ordnance from Belgium, including the excellent FRC-Bofors 40mm L/60 autocannon manufactured by the Fonderie Royale de Canons of Liege. Sixty guns, with their ammunition and fire control equipment were ordered, with the first shipment arriving in December 1946.


Weight: 1,981 kg (in battery)
Crew: 6
Caliber: 40mm L/60
Projectile weight: 0.99 kg
Elevation: +90 degrees, - 5 degrees
Traverse: 360 degrees
Rate of fire: 140 rounds/minute
Muzzle velocity: 850 meters/second
Maximum firing range: 5,000 meters (vertical)


Friday, January 27th 2017, 1:42pm

Cañón antiaéreo pesado Modelo 1946

The Cockerill 90mm L/50 heavy antiaircraft gun first entered service with the Belgian armed forces in 1940 and remains an effective air defense weapon. It was natural that this gun would be selected to remedy the Ejército’s lack of such equipment. Orders were placed in Belgium for sixty guns, together with the necessary direction, fire control, and air warning equipment, with the first being delivered late in 1946.


Weight: 8,800kg (travelling); 6,750 kg (in action)
Crew: 8
Caliber: 90mm L/50
Shell weight: 10.0 kg
Elevation: +85 degrees, - 0 degrees
Traverse: 360 degrees
Rate of fire: 20 rounds/minute
Muzzle velocity: 835 meters/second
Maximum firing range: 11,000 meters (vertical); 16,000 meters (horizontal)