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Ships in Class:

4,051 t light; 4,210 t standard; 4,771 t normal; 5,201 t full load

Loading submergence 342 tons/feet

380.00 ft x 47.00 ft x 17.00 ft (normal load)

115.82 m x 14.33 m x 5.18 m

2 - 5.91" / 150 mm guns

10 - 4.72" / 120 mm guns

2 - 2.95" / 75 mm QF guns

Weight of broadside 759 lbs / 344 kg

3 - 18.0" / 457.2 mm above water torpedoes

Main gun shields 2.00" / 51 mm

Armour deck 1.00" / 25 mm, Conning tower 4.00" / 102 mm

Coal and oil fired boilers, complex reciprocating steam engines,

Direct drive, 2 shafts, 16,874 ihp / 12,588 Kw = 22.70 kts

Range 5,000nm at 12.00 kts

287 - 373

£0.548 million / $2.192 million

Armament: 95 tons, 2.0 %

Armour: 253 tons, 5.3 %

Belts: 0 tons, 0.0 %, Armament: 8 tons, 0.2 %, Armour Deck: 221 tons, 4.6 %

Conning Tower: 24 tons, 0.5 %, Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 %

Machinery: 2,332 tons, 48.9 %

Hull, fittings & equipment: 1,371 tons, 28.7 %

Fuel, ammunition & stores: 720 tons, 15.1 %

Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %

Metacentric height 3.6

Hull space for machinery, storage & compartmentation is cramped

Room for accommodation & workspaces is adequate

Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform

Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

Relative margin of stability: 1.61

Shellfire needed to sink: 1,914 lbs / 868 Kg = 18.6 x 5.9 " / 150 mm shells

(Approx weight of penetrating shell hits needed to sink ship excluding critical hits)

Torpedoes needed to sink: 0.5

(Approx number of typical torpedo hits needed to sink ship)

Relative steadiness as gun platform: 70 %

(Average = 50 %)

Relative rocking effect from firing to beam: 0.12

Relative quality as seaboat: 1.20

Block coefficient: 0.550

Sharpness coefficient: 0.37

Hull speed coefficient 'M': 6.90

'Natural speed' for length: 19.49 kts

Power going to wave formation at top speed: 54 %

Trim: 58

(Maximise stabilty/flotation = 0, Maximise steadiness/seakeeping = 100)

Underwater volume absorbed by magazines and engineering spaces: 173.1 %

Relative accommodation and working space: 90.8 %

(Average = 100%)

Displacement factor: 83 %

(Displacement relative to loading factors)

Relative cross-sectional hull strength: 0.97

(Structure weight / hull surface area: 73 lbs / square foot or 355 Kg / square metre)

Relative longitudinal hull strength: 1.37

(for 12.50 ft / 3.81 m average freeboard, freeboard adjustment -0.56 ft)

Relative composite hull strength: 1.01

Ships in Class:

U-19 ( ex S2 ) build 1918 for Italy, purchased 1938,

U-20 ( ex S3 ) build 1918 for Italy, purchased 1938,

U-21 ( ex S4 ) build 1918 for Italy, purchased 1938,

U-22 ( ex S5 ) build 1918 for Italy, purchased 1938,

U-23 ( ex S6 ) build 1918 for Italy, purchased 1938,

U-24 ( ex S7 ) build 1918 for Italy, purchased 1938,

U-25 ( ex S8 ) build 1918 for Italy, purchased 1938,

U-26 ( ex S9 ) build 1918 for Italy, purchased 1938,

U-27 ( ex S10 ) build 1918 for Italy, purchased 1938,

U-28 ( ex S11 ) build 1918 for Italy, purchased 1938,

U-29 ( ex S12 ) build 1918 for Italy, purchased 1938,

U-30 ( ex S13 ) build 1918 for Italy, purchased 1938,

U-31 ( ex S14 ) build 1918 for Italy, purchased 1938,

U-32 ( ex S15 ) build 1918 for Italy, purchased 1938,

U-33 ( ex S16 ) build 1918 for Italy, purchased 1938,

U-34 ( ex S17 ) build 1918 for Italy, purchased 1938,

U-35 ( ex S18 ) build 1918 for Italy, purchased 1938,

U-36 ( ex S19 ) build 1918 for Italy, purchased 1938,

U-37 ( ex S20 ) build 1918 for Italy, purchased 1938,

440 t light; 450 t standard; 502 t normal; 542 t full load

50.00 m x 6.00 m x 3.00 m

6 - 450 mm submerged bow torpedo tubes with 12 torpedoes

Diesel Internal combustion engines plus batteries,

Electric cruising motors plus geared drives, 1 shaft, 1,000 shp / 746 Kw = 14.61 kts submerged

Range 5,000nm at 10.00 kts

26 - 34

£0.041 million / $0.164 million

Relative margin of stability: 1.08

Operational diving depth ~210ft

Ships in Class:

347 t light; 358 t standard; 411 t normal; 451 t full load

Loading submergence 83 tons/feet

198.00 ft x 22.00 ft x 6.00 ft (normal load)

60.35 m x 6.71 m x 1.83 m

2 - 3.00" / 76 mm guns

2 - 1.85" / 47 mm guns

Weight of broadside 33 lbs / 15 kg

2 - 18.0" / 457.2 mm above water torpedoes

Coal fired boilers, complex reciprocating steam engines,

Geared drive, 2 shafts, 8,902 ihp / 6,641 Kw = 26.00 kts

Range 3,000nm at 10.00 kts

Caution: Delicate, lightweight machinery

45 - 59

£30.047 million / $0.190 million

Armament: 4 tons, 1.0 %

Machinery: 227 tons, 55.4 %

Hull, fittings & equipment: 116 tons, 28.1 %

Fuel, ammunition & stores: 64 tons, 15.5 %

Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %

Metacentric height 1.0

Caution: Hull subject to strain in open-sea

Hull space for machinery, storage & compartmentation is cramped

Room for accommodation & workspaces is adequate

Relative margin of stability: 1.44

Shellfire needed to sink: 138 lbs / 63 Kg = 10.3 x 3.0 " / 76 mm shells

(Approx weight of penetrating shell hits needed to sink ship excluding critical hits)

Torpedoes needed to sink: 0.2

(Approx number of typical torpedo hits needed to sink ship)

Relative steadiness as gun platform: 54 %

(Average = 50 %)

Relative rocking effect from firing to beam: 0.12

Relative quality as seaboat: 1.07

Block coefficient: 0.550

Sharpness coefficient: 0.36

Hull speed coefficient 'M': 8.14

'Natural speed' for length: 14.07 kts

Power going to wave formation at top speed: 73 %

Trim: 50

(Maximise stabilty/flotation = 0, Maximise steadiness/seakeeping = 100)

Underwater volume absorbed by magazines and engineering spaces: 186.5 %

Relative accommodation and working space: 113.8 %

(Average = 100%)

Displacement factor: 34 %

(Displacement relative to loading factors)

Relative cross-sectional hull strength: 0.50

(Structure weight / hull surface area: 21 lbs / square foot or 105 Kg / square metre)

Relative longitudinal hull strength: 1.90

(for 12.00 ft / 3.66 m average freeboard, freeboard adjustment 4.00 ft)

Relative composite hull strength: 0.57

Ships in Class:

2,575 t light; 2,685 t standard; 3,115 t normal; 3,447 t full load

Loading submergence 237 tons/feet

295.00 ft x 42.00 ft x 16.00 ft (normal load)

89.92 m x 12.80 m x 4.88 m

2 - 5.91" / 150 mm guns

6 - 4.72" / 120 mm guns

12 - 1.97" / 50 mm QF guns

Weight of broadside 568 lbs / 258 kg

2 - 14.0" / 355.6 mm above water torpedoes

Belt 2.00" / 51 mm, ends unarmoured

Belts cover 151 % of normal area

Main gun shields 2.00" / 51 mm

Armour deck 1.00" / 25 mm, Conning tower 5.00" / 127 mm

Coal fired boilers, complex reciprocating steam engines,

Direct drive, 2 shafts, 7,930 ihp / 5,916 Kw = 19.50 kts

Range 6,000nm at 10.00 kts

208 - 271

£0.323 million / $1.293 million

Armament: 71 tons, 2.3 %

Armour: 376 tons, 12.1 %

Belts: 192 tons, 6.2 %, Armament: 7 tons, 0.2 %, Armour Deck: 154 tons, 4.9 %

Conning Tower: 23 tons, 0.7 %, Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 %

Machinery: 1,238 tons, 39.8 %

Hull, fittings & equipment: 890 tons, 28.6 %

Fuel, ammunition & stores: 540 tons, 17.3 %

Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %

Metacentric height 2.6

Hull space for machinery, storage & compartmentation is cramped

Room for accommodation & workspaces is cramped

Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform

Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

Relative margin of stability: 1.46

Shellfire needed to sink: 1,620 lbs / 735 Kg = 15.7 x 5.9 " / 150 mm shells

(Approx weight of penetrating shell hits needed to sink ship excluding critical hits)

Torpedoes needed to sink: 0.5

(Approx number of typical torpedo hits needed to sink ship)

Relative steadiness as gun platform: 70 %

(Average = 50 %)

Relative rocking effect from firing to beam: 0.15

Relative quality as seaboat: 1.23

Block coefficient: 0.550

Sharpness coefficient: 0.39

Hull speed coefficient 'M': 6.17

'Natural speed' for length: 17.18 kts

Power going to wave formation at top speed: 55 %

Trim: 57

(Maximise stabilty/flotation = 0, Maximise steadiness/seakeeping = 100)

Underwater volume absorbed by magazines and engineering spaces: 146.1 %

Relative accommodation and working space: 79.5 %

(Average = 100%)

Displacement factor: 88 %

(Displacement relative to loading factors)

Relative cross-sectional hull strength: 0.95

(Structure weight / hull surface area: 67 lbs / square foot or 329 Kg / square metre)

Relative longitudinal hull strength: 1.84

(for 11.00 ft / 3.35 m average freeboard, freeboard adjustment -0.99 ft)

Relative composite hull strength: 1.02

Ships in Class:

Length, 330 ft x Beam, 42.0 ft x Depth, 14.9 ft

2750 tons normal displacement (2067 tons standard)

Main battery: 2 x 6.00-inch / 152mm

Secondary battery: 4 x 3.94-inch / 100mm

AA battery: 10 x 1.57-inch / 40mm

Light battery: 2 x 0.98-inch / 25mm

Weight of broadside: 365 lbs

2 x 1 TT, 18.0"

Armor deck, average 2.0 inches

C.T., 3.0 inches

Battery armor:

Main, 1.0" shields / secondary, 1.0" shields

QF, 0.5" shields

Maximum speed for 7999 shp = 20.37 knots

Approximate cruising radius, 2900 nm / 18 kts

190-247

Estimated cost, $632,000 (£158,000)

Ship has slow, easy roll; a good, steady gun platform.

Good seaboat; rides out heavy weather easily.

Magazines and engineering spaces are roomy, with superior

watertight subdivision.

Percent

normal

displacement:

Armament ......................... 45 tons = 2 pct

Armor, total ..................... 330 tons = 12 pct

Deck 307 tons = 11 pct

C.T. 13 tons = 0 pct

Armament 10 tons = 0 pct

Machinery ........................ 364 tons = 13 pct

Hull and fittings; equipment ..... 1234 tons = 45 pct

Fuel, ammunition, stores ......... 767 tons = 28 pct

Miscellaneous weights ............ 10 tons = 0 pct

-----

2750 tons = 100 pct

Estimated metacentric height, 2.4 ft

Light ship: 1982 tons

Standard displacement: 2067 tons

Normal service: 2750 tons

Full load: 3284 tons

Loading submergence 237 tons/foot

Relative margin of stability: 1.37

Shellfire needed to sink: 5670 lbs = 52.5 x 6.0-inch shells

(Approximates weight of penetrating

shell hits needed to sink ship,

not counting critical hits)

Torpedoes needed to sink: 1.8

(Approximates number of 'typical'

torpedo hits needed to sink ship)

Relative steadiness as gun platform, 73 percent

(50 percent is 'average')

Relative rocking effect from firing to beam, 0.11

Relative quality as a seaboat: 1.47

Block coefficient: 0.466

Sharpness coefficient: 0.35

Hull speed coefficient 'M' = 7.20

'Natural speed' for length = 18.2 knots

Power going to wave formation

at top speed: 49 percent

Relative underwater volume absorbed by

magazines and engineering spaces: 57 percent

Relative accommodation and working space: 92 percent

Displacement factor: 193 percent

(Displacement relative to loading factors)

Relative cross-sectional hull strength: 1.38

(Structure weight per square

foot of hull surface: 90 lbs)

Relative longitudinal hull strength: 2.43

(for 11.7 ft average freeboard)

Relative composite hull strength: 1.46

Ships in Class:

Length, 330 ft x Beam, 42.0 ft x Depth, 14.9 ft

2750 tons normal displacement (2074 tons standard)

Main battery: 2 x 6.00-inch / 152mm

Secondary battery: 4 x 4.00-inch / 102mm

QF battery: 2 x 3.00-inch / 76mm (14-pdr)

Light battery: 6 x 1.85-inch / 47mm (3-pdr)

Fifth battery: 2 x 1.46-inch / 37mm (1-pdr)

Weight of broadside: 392 lbs

2 x 1 TT, 18.0"

Armor deck, average 2.0 inches

C.T., 3.0 inches

Battery armor:

Main, 1.0" shields / secondary, 1.0" shields

Maximum speed for 7999 shp = 20.37 knots

Approximate cruising radius, 2900 nm / 18 kts

190-247

Estimated cost, $646,000 (£161,000)

Ship has slow, easy roll; a good, steady gun platform.

Good seaboat; rides out heavy weather easily.

Magazines and engineering spaces are roomy, with superior

watertight subdivision.

Percent

normal

displacement:

Armament ......................... 49 tons = 2 pct

Armor, total ..................... 328 tons = 12 pct

Deck 307 tons = 11 pct

C.T. 13 tons = 0 pct

Armament 8 tons = 0 pct

Machinery ........................ 364 tons = 13 pct

Hull and fittings; equipment ..... 1236 tons = 45 pct

Fuel, ammunition, stores ......... 763 tons = 28 pct

Miscellaneous weights ............ 10 tons = 0 pct

-----

2750 tons = 100 pct

Estimated metacentric height, 2.3 ft

Light ship: 1987 tons

Standard displacement: 2074 tons

Normal service: 2750 tons

Full load: 3279 tons

Loading submergence 237 tons/foot

Relative margin of stability: 1.36

Shellfire needed to sink: 5558 lbs = 51.5 x 6.0-inch shells

(Approximates weight of penetrating

shell hits needed to sink ship,

not counting critical hits)

Torpedoes needed to sink: 1.7

(Approximates number of 'typical'

torpedo hits needed to sink ship)

Relative steadiness as gun platform, 73 percent

(50 percent is 'average')

Relative rocking effect from firing to beam, 0.12

Relative quality as a seaboat: 1.47

Block coefficient: 0.466

Sharpness coefficient: 0.35

Hull speed coefficient 'M' = 7.20

'Natural speed' for length = 18.2 knots

Power going to wave formation

at top speed: 49 percent

Relative underwater volume absorbed by

magazines and engineering spaces: 58 percent

Relative accommodation and working space: 92 percent

Displacement factor: 189 percent

(Displacement relative to loading factors)

Relative cross-sectional hull strength: 1.36

(Structure weight per square

foot of hull surface: 90 lbs)

Relative longitudinal hull strength: 2.44

(for 11.7 ft average freeboard)

Relative composite hull strength: 1.45

Ships in Class:

3,264 t light; 3,390 t standard; 3,844 t normal; 4,191 t full load

Loading submergence 246 tons/feet

314.00 ft x 41.00 ft x 19.00 ft (normal load)

95.71 m x 12.50 m x 5.79 m

3 - 5.90" / 150 mm guns

8 - 4.10" / 104 mm guns

6 - 1.18" / 30 mm QF guns

6 - 0.70" / 18 mm guns

Weight of broadside 590 lbs / 267 kg

1 - 14.0" / 355.6 mm above water torpedoes

Belt 4.00" / 102 mm, ends unarmoured

Belts cover 148 % of normal area

Main gun shields 3.00" / 76 mm

Armour deck 1.50" / 38 mm, Conning tower 2.00" / 51 mm

Coal fired boilers, complex reciprocating steam engines,

Direct drive, 3 shafts, 9,651 ihp / 7,200 Kw = 20.00 kts

Range 5,500nm at 10.00 kts

244 - 317

'a30.394 million / $1.575 million

Armament: 74 tons, 1.9 %

Armour: 657 tons, 17.1 %

Belts: 392 tons, 10.2 %, Armament: 16 tons, 0.4 %, Armour Deck: 239 tons, 6.2 %

Conning Tower: 11 tons, 0.3 %, Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 %

Machinery: 1,554 tons, 40.4 %

Hull, fittings & equipment: 980 tons, 25.5 %

Fuel, ammunition & stores: 579 tons, 15.1 %

Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %

Metacentric height 2.5

Hull space for machinery, storage & compartmentation is cramped

Room for accommodation & workspaces is cramped

Relative margin of stability: 1.44

Shellfire needed to sink: 1,787 lbs / 811 Kg = 17.4 x 5.9 " / 150 mm shells

(Approx weight of penetrating shell hits needed to sink ship excluding critical hits)

Torpedoes needed to sink: 0.5

(Approx number of typical torpedo hits needed to sink ship)

Relative steadiness as gun platform: 55 %

(Average = 50 %)

Relative rocking effect from firing to beam: 0.12

Relative quality as seaboat: 1.09

Block coefficient: 0.550

Sharpness coefficient: 0.38

Hull speed coefficient 'M': 6.13

'Natural speed' for length: 17.72 kts

Power going to wave formation at top speed: 53 %

Trim: 50

(Maximise stabilty/flotation = 0, Maximise steadiness/seakeeping = 100)

Underwater volume absorbed by magazines and engineering spaces: 145.6 %

Relative accommodation and working space: 65.7 %

(Average = 100%)

Displacement factor: 86 %

(Displacement relative to loading factors)

Relative cross-sectional hull strength: 0.96

(Structure weight / hull surface area: 68 lbs / square foot or 333 Kg / square metre)

Relative longitudinal hull strength: 1.66

(for 10.00 ft / 3.05 m average freeboard, freeboard adjustment -2.51 ft)

Relative composite hull strength: 1.02

Ships in Class:

The ship was laid down on the imperial shipyard of Taku on 26 February 1914. It was launched on 18 January 1915. Then it was converted into a survey ship & despatch vessel, and was put into service for the chinese navy on 15 November 1916. It had, in addition to its machinery, auxiliary sails and has a crew of 110 men.

Research journeys:

The ship traveled from 16 April 1925 until 2 June 1927 the Atlantic and became known for in the "Chinese Atlantic expedition" , a survey of the Atlantic Ocean, where 13 "Lotprofiles" between Africa, South America and Atlantis were built with 67,000 echo soundings.The total travel distance for the survey was 67 535 nautical miles, which is more than three times of the circumference of the earth. Leader of the journey was Fan Hsin-Min. In the following years, expeditions were conducted in the Pacific, among other things, to Guam, Tonga and the West Pacific, in which particular hydrographic surveying were carried out.

785 t light; 809 t standard; 1.050 t normal; 1.243 t full load

Length overall / water x beam x draught

229,15 ft / 223,75 ft x 33,46 ft x 11,15 ft (normal load)

69,85 m / 68,20 m x 10,20 m x 3,40 m

2 - 3,46" / 88,0 mm guns in single mounts, 20,79lbs / 9,43kg shells, 1914 Model

Breech loading guns in deck mounts

on centreline ends, evenly spread

Weight of broadside 42 lbs / 19 kg

Shells per gun, main battery: 150

Oil fired boilers, steam turbines,

Geared drive, 2 shafts, 590 shp / 440 Kw = 11,50 kts

Range 13.000nm at 10,20 kts

Bunker at max displacement = 433 tons

91 - 119

£0,045 million / $0,178 million

Armament: 5 tons, 0,5%

Machinery: 23 tons, 2,2%

Hull, fittings & equipment: 457 tons, 43,5%

Fuel, ammunition & stores: 265 tons, 25,2%

Miscellaneous weights: 300 tons, 28,6%

Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):

2.848 lbs / 1.292 Kg = 137,0 x 3,5 " / 88 mm shells or 1,7 torpedoes

Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1,00

Metacentric height 1,0 ft / 0,3 m

Roll period: 14,3 seconds

Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 100 %

- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0,05

Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 2,00

Hull has raised forecastle, rise forward of midbreak

Block coefficient: 0,440

Length to Beam Ratio: 6,69 : 1

'Natural speed' for length: 14,96 kts

Power going to wave formation at top speed: 30 %

Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50

Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 10,00 degrees

Stern overhang: 2,62 ft / 0,80 m

Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length):

- Stem: 15,75 ft / 4,80 m

- Forecastle (20%): 15,09 ft / 4,60 m (14,44 ft / 4,40 m aft of break)

- Mid (50%): 13,78 ft / 4,20 m (7,22 ft / 2,20 m aft of break)

- Quarterdeck (15%): 7,22 ft / 2,20 m

- Stern: 7,87 ft / 2,40 m

- Average freeboard: 10,96 ft / 3,34 m

Ship tends to be wet forward

Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 43,2%

- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 103,1%

Waterplane Area: 4.738 Square feet or 440 Square metres

Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 271%

Structure weight / hull surface area: 60 lbs/sq ft or 291 Kg/sq metre

Hull strength (Relative):

- Cross-sectional: 1,30

- Longitudinal: 3,61

- Overall: 1,44

Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent

Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform

Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

- 300 tons research equipment

Ships in Class:

HICMS Yingkou laid down 1935;

1.064 t light; 1.091 t standard; 1.271 t normal; 1.415 t full load

Length overall / water x beam x draught

271,45 ft / 262,14 ft x 35,43 ft x 11,98 ft (normal load)

82,74 m / 79,90 m x 10,80 m x 3,65 m

1 - 3,46" / 88,0 mm guns in single mounts, 20,79lbs / 9,43kg shells, 1935 Model

Dual purpose gun in deck mount

on centreline forward

4 - 0,79" / 20,0 mm guns (1x4 guns), 0,24lbs / 0,11kg shells, 1935 Model

Anti-aircraft guns in deck mount

on side amidships, all raised guns

Weight of broadside 22 lbs / 10 kg

Shells per gun, main battery: 150

- Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg)

Main: 0,98" / 25 mm 147,64 ft / 45,00 m 9,19 ft / 2,80 m

Ends: Unarmoured

Main Belt covers 87% of normal length

Main belt does not fully cover magazines and engineering spaces

- Armour deck: 0,98" / 25 mm, Conning tower: 2,17" / 55 mm

Diesel Internal combustion motors,

Geared drive, 2 shafts, 10.838 shp / 8.085 Kw = 24,30 kts

Range 4.100nm at 16,00 kts

Bunker at max displacement = 324 tons

106 - 138

£0,421 million / $1,683 million

Armament: 3 tons, 0,2%

Armour: 168 tons, 13,2%

- Belts: 58 tons, 4,6%

- Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0,0%

- Armament: 0 tons, 0,0%

- Armour Deck: 104 tons, 8,2%

- Conning Tower: 5 tons, 0,4%

Machinery: 308 tons, 24,2%

Hull, fittings & equipment: 385 tons, 30,3%

Fuel, ammunition & stores: 207 tons, 16,3%

Miscellaneous weights: 200 tons, 15,7%

Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):

1.510 lbs / 685 Kg = 72,6 x 3,5 " / 88 mm shells or 0,7 torpedoes

Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1,15

Metacentric height 1,4 ft / 0,4 m

Roll period: 12,7 seconds

Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 80 %

- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0,03

Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 2,00

Hull has low quarterdeck

Block coefficient: 0,400

Length to Beam Ratio: 7,40 : 1

'Natural speed' for length: 16,19 kts

Power going to wave formation at top speed: 62 %

Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 40

Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 20,00 degrees

Stern overhang: 2,62 ft / 0,80 m

Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length):

- Stem: 18,37 ft / 5,60 m

- Forecastle (20%): 18,37 ft / 5,60 m

- Mid (50%): 18,37 ft / 5,60 m

- Quarterdeck (15%): 11,81 ft / 3,60 m (18,37 ft / 5,60 m before break)

- Stern: 11,81 ft / 3,60 m

- Average freeboard: 17,39 ft / 5,30 m

Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 97,8%

- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 188,8%

Waterplane Area: 5.718 Square feet or 531 Square metres

Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 126%

Structure weight / hull surface area: 31 lbs/sq ft or 150 Kg/sq metre

Hull strength (Relative):

- Cross-sectional: 0,51

- Longitudinal: 5,29

- Overall: 0,65

Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate

Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform

Excellent seaboat, comfortable, can fire her guns in the heaviest weather

- 100 tons for aviation fuel

- 25 tons for heavy lift crane

- 30 tons for spare torpedoes

- 3 tons for bombs (50 x 60 kg)

- 7 tons for bombs (28 x 250 kg)

- 35 tons for other storage (spare parts for seaplanes etc.)

Ships in Class:

HICMS Hong Lung; laid down 1924

HICMS Kaifeng; laid down 1926

7.551 t light; 7.882 t standard; 10.459 t normal; 12.520 t full load

Length overall / water x beam x draught

541,63 ft / 518,37 ft x 54,13 ft x 23,29 ft (normal load)

165,09 m / 158,00 m x 16,50 m x 7,10 m

9 - 5,91" / 150 mm guns (3x3 guns), 102,98lbs / 46,71kg shells, 1922 Model

Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes)

on centreline ends, majority forward, 1 raised mount - superfiring

8 - 4,69" / 119 mm guns in single mounts, 51,42lbs / 23,32kg shells, 1922 Model

Breech loading guns in casemate mounts

on side, evenly spread

8 - 1,85" / 47,0 mm guns in single mounts, 3,17lbs / 1,44kg shells, 1920 Model

Quick firing guns in deck mounts

on side, evenly spread

12 - 0,71" / 18,0 mm guns (10 mounts), 0,18lbs / 0,08kg shells, 1920 Model

Machine guns in deck mounts

on side, evenly spread

Weight of broadside 1.366 lbs / 619 kg

Shells per gun, main battery: 150

10 - 21,0" / 533 mm above water torpedoes

- Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg)

Main: 2,95" / 75 mm 445,54 ft / 135,80 m 8,83 ft / 2,69 m

Ends: 0,98" / 25 mm 72,51 ft / 22,10 m 8,83 ft / 2,69 m

Upper: 1,38" / 35 mm 445,54 ft / 135,80 m 8,01 ft / 2,44 m

Main Belt covers 132% of normal length

- Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)

Main: 3,35" / 85 mm 2,56" / 65 mm 0,98" / 25 mm

2nd: 1,57" / 40 mm 0,79" / 20 mm -

3rd: 0,28" / 7 mm 0,08" / 2 mm -

4th: 0,28" / 7 mm 0,08" / 2 mm -

- Armour deck: 2,17" / 55 mm, Conning tower: 1,77" / 45 mm

Coal fired boilers, steam turbines plus diesel motors,

Geared drive, 3 shafts, 59.234 shp / 44.188 Kw = 28,50 kts

Range 9.500nm at 18,00 kts

Bunker at max displacement = 4.637 tons (75% coal)

516 - 672

£2,166 million / $8,664 million

Armament: 171 tons, 1,6%

Armour: 1.661 tons, 15,9%

- Belts: 686 tons, 6,6%

- Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0,0%

- Armament: 165 tons, 1,6%

- Armour Deck: 792 tons, 7,6%

- Conning Tower: 18 tons, 0,2%

Machinery: 2.094 tons, 20,0%

Hull, fittings & equipment: 3.425 tons, 32,7%

Fuel, ammunition & stores: 2.908 tons, 27,8%

Miscellaneous weights: 200 tons, 1,9%

Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):

14.177 lbs / 6.430 Kg = 137,7 x 5,9 " / 150 mm shells or 1,9 torpedoes

Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1,20

Metacentric height 2,8 ft / 0,9 m

Roll period: 13,6 seconds

Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 70 %

- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0,41

Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1,28

Hull has raised forecastle

Block coefficient: 0,560

Length to Beam Ratio: 9,58 : 1

'Natural speed' for length: 22,77 kts

Power going to wave formation at top speed: 56 %

Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 55

Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 30,00 degrees

Stern overhang: 6,40 ft / 1,95 m

Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length):

- Stem: 29,20 ft / 8,90 m

- Forecastle (14%): 22,31 ft / 6,80 m (21,98 ft / 6,70 m aft of break)

- Mid (50%): 17,06 ft / 5,20 m

- Quarterdeck (12%): 17,06 ft / 5,20 m

- Stern: 22,31 ft / 6,80 m

- Average freeboard: 19,38 ft / 5,91 m

Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 80,4%

- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 100,6%

Waterplane Area: 19.768 Square feet or 1.837 Square metres

Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 141%

Structure weight / hull surface area: 99 lbs/sq ft or 483 Kg/sq metre

Hull strength (Relative):

- Cross-sectional: 1,03

- Longitudinal: 1,92

- Overall: 1,10

Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is excellent

Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform

Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

- 25 tons for catapult

- 25 tons for aircraft

- 40 tons for spare torpedoes

- 50 tons for flag facilities

- 60 tons for crew comfort

Ships in Class:

HICMS Kasuga laid down 1914

HICMS Iwaki laid down 1914

10,675 t light; 11,185 t standard; 13,750 t normal; 15,747 t full load

Loading submergence 691 tons/feet

550.00 ft x 70.00 ft x 25.00 ft (normal load)

167.64 m x 21.34 m x 7.62 m

8 - 7.87" / 200 mm guns (2 Main turrets x 4 guns)

12 - 5.12" / 130 mm guns

Secondary guns mounted low & subject to being washed down in a seaway

12 - 1.97" / 50 mm AA guns

24 - 0.98" / 25 mm guns

Weight of broadside 2,814 lbs / 1,277 kg

4 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes

Belt 8.00" / 203 mm, upper belt 4.00" / 102 mm, end belts 2.00" / 51 mm

Belts cover 80 % of normal area

Main turrets 8.00" / 203 mm, 2nd casemates 3.00" / 76 mm

AA gun shields 1.00" / 25 mm, Light gun shields 1.00" / 25 mm

Armour deck 2.50" / 64 mm, Conning tower 12.00" / 305 mm

Oil fired boilers, steam turbines,

Geared drive, 3 shafts, 63,838 shp / 47,624 Kw = 28.00 kts

Range 14,000nm at 14.00 kts

634 - 825

£1.290 million / $5.159 million

Armament: 352 tons, 2.6 %

Armour: 3,368 tons, 24.5 %

Belts: 1,466 tons, 10.7 %, Armament: 634 tons, 4.6 %, Armour Deck: 1,119 tons, 8.1 %

Conning Tower: 149 tons, 1.1 %, Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 %

Machinery: 2,459 tons, 17.9 %

Hull, fittings & equipment: 4,497 tons, 32.7 %

Fuel, ammunition & stores: 3,075 tons, 22.4 %

Miscellaneous weights: 0 tons, 0.0 %

Metacentric height 4.5

Hull space for machinery, storage & compartmentation is excellent

Room for accommodation & workspaces is adequate

Relative margin of stability: 1.27

Shellfire needed to sink: 18,415 lbs / 8,353 Kg = 75.4 x 7.9 " / 200 mm shells

(Approx weight of penetrating shell hits needed to sink ship excluding critical hits)

Torpedoes needed to sink: 2.4

(Approx number of typical torpedo hits needed to sink ship)

Relative steadiness as gun platform: 54 %

(Average = 50 %)

Relative rocking effect from firing to beam: 0.30

Relative quality as seaboat: 1.08

Block coefficient: 0.500

Sharpness coefficient: 0.36

Hull speed coefficient 'M': 7.02

'Natural speed' for length: 23.45 kts

Power going to wave formation at top speed: 55 %

Trim: 50

(Maximise stabilty/flotation = 0, Maximise steadiness/seakeeping = 100)

Underwater volume absorbed by magazines and engineering spaces: 78.4 %

Relative accommodation and working space: 116.1 %

(Average = 100%)

Displacement factor: 124 %

(Displacement relative to loading factors)

Relative cross-sectional hull strength: 0.96

(Structure weight / hull surface area: 117 lbs / square foot or 574 Kg / square metre)

Relative longitudinal hull strength: 1.45

(for 17.20 ft / 5.24 m average freeboard, freeboard adjustment 1.06 ft)

Relative composite hull strength: 1.00

Ships in Class:

4,102 t light; 4,278 t standard; 4,587 t normal; 4,833 t full load

Length overall / water x beam x draught

496.41 ft / 488.00 ft x 45.00 ft x 17.00 ft (normal load)

151.31 m / 148.74 m x 13.72 m x 5.18 m

6 - 5.12" / 130 mm guns (2x3 guns), 75 lbs shells, 1921 Model

Breech loading guns in turrets (on barbettes)

on centreline ends, evenly spread

4 - 1.97" / 50.0 mm guns (2x2 guns), 4 lbs shells, 1926 Model

Breech loading guns in deck mounts

on centreline ends, evenly spread, all raised mounts

12 - 0.98" / 25.0 mm guns (4x3 guns), 0.56lbs shells, 1926 Model

Breech loading guns in deck mounts

on side, evenly spread

Weight of broadside 423 lbs / 192 kg

Shells per gun, main battery: 350

4 - 24.0" / 609.6 mm above water torpedoes

- Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)

Main: 2.00" / 51 mm 0.50" / 13 mm 1.50" / 38 mm

2nd: 1.00" / 25 mm - -

3rd: 1.00" / 25 mm - -

- Conning tower: 3.00" / 76 mm

Oil fired boilers, steam turbines,

Geared drive, 4 shafts, 79,128 shp / 59,030 Kw = 36.50 kts

Range 2,000nm at 20.00 kts

Bunker at max displacement = 555 tons

278 - 362

£2.172 million / $8.690 million

Armament: 53 tons, 1.2 %

Armour: 70 tons, 1.5 %

- Belts: 0 tons, 0.0 %

- Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 %

- Armament: 53 tons, 1.1 %

- Armour Deck: 0 tons, 0.0 %

- Conning Tower: 18 tons, 0.4 %

Machinery: 2,368 tons, 51.6 %

Hull, fittings & equipment: 1,560 tons, 34.0 %

Fuel, ammunition & stores: 485 tons, 10.6 %

Miscellaneous weights: 50 tons, 1.1 %

Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):

1,509 lbs / 684 Kg = 22.5 x 5.1 " / 130 mm shells or 0.5 torpedoes

Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.18

Metacentric height 2.0 ft / 0.6 m

Roll period: 13.2 seconds

Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 76 %

- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.31

Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.05

Hull has a flush deck

and transom stern

Block coefficient: 0.430

Length to Beam Ratio: 10.84 : 1

'Natural speed' for length: 25.27 kts

Power going to wave formation at top speed: 64 %

Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 73

Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 17.00 degrees

Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m

Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length):

- Stem: 27.50 ft / 8.38 m

- Forecastle (20 %): 17.50 ft / 5.33 m

- Mid (50 %): 17.50 ft / 5.33 m

- Quarterdeck (15 %): 17.50 ft / 5.33 m

- Stern: 17.50 ft / 5.33 m

- Average freeboard: 18.30 ft / 5.58 m

Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 177.9 %

- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 143.5 %

Waterplane Area: 14,319 Square feet or 1,330 Square metres

Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 86 %

Structure weight / hull surface area: 59 lbs/sq ft or 286 Kg/sq metre

Hull strength (Relative):

- Cross-sectional: 0.68

- Longitudinal: 1.75

- Overall: 0.75

Caution: Hull subject to strain in open-sea

Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped

Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform

- 25 tons for degaussing system

- 25 tons for climatisation

Ships in Class:

Displacement:

4,570 t light; 4,758 t standard; 4,986 t normal; 5,169 t full load

Dimensions: Length overall / water x beam x draught

459.70 ft / 456.00 ft x 52.00 ft x 16.00 ft (normal load)

140.12 m / 138.99 m x 15.85 m x 4.88 m

Armament:

2 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1912 Model

Breech loading guns in deck mounts

on centreline ends, evenly spread

6 - 6.00" / 152 mm guns in single mounts, 108.00lbs / 48.99kg shells, 1912 Model

Breech loading guns in deck mounts

on side, all amidships

4 - 3.00" / 76.2 mm guns in single mounts, 13.50lbs / 6.12kg shells, 1912 Model

Quick firing guns in deck mounts

on side, evenly spread

10 - 1.00" / 25.4 mm guns in single mounts, 0.50lbs / 0.23kg shells, 1912 Model

Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts

on side, evenly spread

Weight of broadside 923 lbs / 419 kg

Shells per gun, main battery: 150

4 - 21.0" / 533.4 mm above water torpedoes

Armour:

- Belts: Width (max) Length (avg) Height (avg)

Main: 3.15" / 80 mm 310.00 ft / 94.49 m 12.00 ft / 3.66 m

Ends: 1.57" / 40 mm 146.00 ft / 44.50 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m

Upper: 1.18" / 30 mm 160.00 ft / 48.77 m 8.00 ft / 2.44 m

Main Belt covers 105 % of normal length

- Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)

Main: 1.57" / 40 mm - -

- Armour deck: 1.18" / 30 mm, Conning tower: 6.10" / 155 mm

Machinery:

Oil fired boilers, steam turbines,

Direct drive, 4 shafts, 35,598 shp / 26,556 Kw = 28.00 kts

Range 5,000nm at 10.00 kts

Bunker at max displacement = 412 tons

Complement:

296 - 385

Cost:

£0.440 million / $1.758 million

Distribution of weights at normal displacement:

Armament: 115 tons, 2.3 %

Armour: 1,011 tons, 20.3 %

- Belts: 628 tons, 12.6 %

- Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0.0 %

- Armament: 11 tons, 0.2 %

- Armour Deck: 333 tons, 6.7 %

- Conning Tower: 38 tons, 0.8 %

Machinery: 1,305 tons, 26.2 %

Hull, fittings & equipment: 2,089 tons, 41.9 %

Fuel, ammunition & stores: 416 tons, 8.3 %

Miscellaneous weights: 50 tons, 1.0 %

Overall survivability and seakeeping ability:

Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):

6,516 lbs / 2,956 Kg = 60.3 x 6.0 " / 152 mm shells or 1.2 torpedoes

Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1.25

Metacentric height 2.8 ft / 0.9 m

Roll period: 13.0 seconds

Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 70 %

- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0.20

Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 1.24

Hull form characteristics:

Hull has rise forward of midbreak

Block coefficient: 0.460

Length to Beam Ratio: 8.77 : 1

'Natural speed' for length: 21.35 kts

Power going to wave formation at top speed: 56 %

Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 57

Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 10.00 degrees

Stern overhang: 0.00 ft / 0.00 m

Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length):

- Stem: 21.00 ft / 6.40 m

- Forecastle (20 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m

- Mid (70 %): 20.00 ft / 6.10 m (10.00 ft / 3.05 m aft of break)

- Quarterdeck (15 %): 10.00 ft / 3.05 m

- Stern: 10.00 ft / 3.05 m

- Average freeboard: 17.08 ft / 5.21 m

Ship tends to be wet forward

Ship space, strength and comments:

Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 104.3 %

- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 153.5 %

Waterplane Area: 15,251 Square feet or 1,417 Square metres

Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 109 %

Structure weight / hull surface area: 86 lbs/sq ft or 422 Kg/sq metre

Hull strength (Relative):

- Cross-sectional: 1.06

- Longitudinal: 1.80

- Overall: 1.12

Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is adequate

Room for accommodation and workspaces is excellent

Ship has slow, easy roll, a good, steady gun platform

Good seaboat, rides out heavy weather easily

1.236 t light; 1.276 t standard; 1.392 t normal; 1.484 t full load

Length overall / water x beam x draught

360,21 ft / 350,07 ft x 33,14 ft x 10,50 ft (normal load)

109,79 m / 106,70 m x 10,10 m x 3,20 m

4 - 4,13" / 105 mm guns in single mounts, 35,32lbs / 16,02kg shells, 1921 Model

Breech loading guns in deck mounts with hoists

on centreline ends, evenly spread, 2 raised mounts - superfiring

4 - 1,38" / 35,0 mm guns in single mounts, 1,31lbs / 0,59kg shells, 1921 Model

Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts

on side, all amidships, 2 raised mounts - superfiring

2 - 0,59" / 15,0 mm guns in single mounts, 0,10lbs / 0,05kg shells, 1921 Model

Anti-aircraft guns in deck mounts

on side, evenly spread

Weight of broadside 147 lbs / 67 kg

Shells per gun, main battery: 150

8 - 19,7" / 500 mm above water torpedoes

- Gun armour: Face (max) Other gunhouse (avg) Barbette/hoist (max)

Main: 1,97" / 50 mm - -

2nd: 0,79" / 20 mm - -

3rd: 0,79" / 20 mm - -

- Conning tower: 1,97" / 50 mm

Oil fired boilers, steam turbines,

Geared drive, 2 shafts, 29.271 shp / 21.836 Kw = 33,27 kts

Range 4.500nm at 12,00 kts

Bunker at max displacement = 208 tons

113 - 148

£0,405 million / $1,621 million

Armament: 18 tons, 1,3%

Armour: 24 tons, 1,7%

- Belts: 0 tons, 0,0%

- Torpedo bulkhead: 0 tons, 0,0%

- Armament: 19 tons, 1,3%

- Armour Deck: 0 tons, 0,0%

- Conning Tower: 5 tons, 0,4%

Machinery: 718 tons, 51,6%

Hull, fittings & equipment: 435 tons, 31,3%

Fuel, ammunition & stores: 156 tons, 11,2%

Miscellaneous weights: 40 tons, 2,9%

Survivability (Non-critical penetrating hits needed to sink ship):

427 lbs / 194 Kg = 12,1 x 4,1 " / 105 mm shells or 0,3 torpedoes

Stability (Unstable if below 1.00): 1,37

Metacentric height 1,7 ft / 0,5 m

Roll period: 10,8 seconds

Steadiness - As gun platform (Average = 50 %): 46 %

- Recoil effect (Restricted arc if above 1.00): 0,23

Seaboat quality (Average = 1.00): 0,84

Hull has rise forward of midbreak

and transom stern

Block coefficient: 0,400

Length to Beam Ratio: 10,56 : 1

'Natural speed' for length: 21,54 kts

Power going to wave formation at top speed: 66 %

Trim (Max stability = 0, Max steadiness = 100): 50

Bow angle (Positive = bow angles forward): 20,00 degrees

Stern overhang: 2,62 ft / 0,80 m

Freeboard (% = measuring location as a percentage of overall length):

- Stem: 20,67 ft / 6,30 m

- Forecastle (20%): 16,40 ft / 5,00 m

- Mid (50%): 16,40 ft / 5,00 m (9,84 ft / 3,00 m aft of break)

- Quarterdeck (15%): 9,84 ft / 3,00 m

- Stern: 9,84 ft / 3,00 m

- Average freeboard: 13,46 ft / 4,10 m

Space - Hull below water (magazines/engines, low = better): 179,8%

- Above water (accommodation/working, high = better): 93,6%

Waterplane Area: 7.410 Square feet or 688 Square metres

Displacement factor (Displacement / loading): 63%

Structure weight / hull surface area: 33 lbs/sq ft or 160 Kg/sq metre

Hull strength (Relative):

- Cross-sectional: 0,52

- Longitudinal: 1,40

- Overall: 0,57

Hull space for machinery, storage, compartmentation is cramped

Room for accommodation and workspaces is adequate

Poor seaboat, wet and uncomfortable, reduced performance in heavy weather

- 8 tons for rail

- 12 tons for sonar

- 20 tons 80 DCs (each 250 kg)

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