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Tuesday, November 23rd 2010, 11:12pm

The Great War + Balkan History

Gentlemen. As you are no doubt aware, for the past few months I and several others have been working on a timeline which endeavors to comprehensively present the pre-sim actions of the Great War as it occurred in Wesworld. As a side-affect, some of us hope to answer a number of oddities found in our Wesworld history, particularly in relation to the Balkans.

We would like to present our completed project. While we remain open to minor changes, we have obtained the approval of all major and most minor powers in the Great War.

Let us start with the difficulties posed by accepted history, which we endeavor to answer. Our goal was to bring together all the "settled history" of Wesworld and fill in data which filled the holes.

Difficulties to Overcome in the Great War Timeline:
1. We know that the Russians bowed out of the Great War in 1917 despite the successful opening of the Dardanelles. This prevents the Russian Civil War and the ascent of the Soviet Union.
2. We know that the Atlanteans successfully completed a Second Dardanelles Campaign which opened the Dardanelles and resulted in the establishment of Byzantium as a Russian-Atlantean protectorate.
3. We know that Greece holds Macedonia and the regions around Smyrna, but have no date for either of these two acquisitions.
4. We know that Italy’s eastern borders are defined by their claims under the London Pact. We also know that Italy holds Vlore (Albania) while Greece and Yugoslavia hold the remainder.
5. We know that Bulgaria was either not placed under the terms of the Treaty of Neuilly or was blatantly violating the treaty by 1923 (owning the pre-dreadnought battleship Erzherzog Franz Ferdinand, purchased from Atlantis - and re-selling it in 1924 to the Philippines). However, Bulgaria’s borders from the Treaty of Neuilly were in place.
6. We know that the Netherlands assumed the “neutral administration” of German-occupied Belgium after September 1914.
7. We know that the USA did not enter the Great War in April 1917 as historical; in fact the USA did not enter the Great War at all.
8. We know the Great War ended sometime in 1917.
9. We know Germany was accepted back into the international scene early in the 1930s even by rival France, which agreed to tone down and eventually release Germany from the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.

The Balkan Wars


Tuesday, November 23rd 2010, 11:14pm

The Balkan Wars

The Balkan Wars set the stage for the Great War and thus composes a key portion of our timeline.

1912 - The Balkan Pact forms as a series of agreements between Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, and Montenegro.
March 13, 1912 - Serbia and Bulgaria agree to the basic outline of a plan to break up the Ottoman holdings in the Balkans and share the spoils between them.
October 1912 to May 1913 - The First Balkan War (as historical)
May 1913 - Serbia threatens to declare war on Bulgaria if Bulgaria’s territorial gains are not limited to the right hand bank of the Vardar. This is a reversal of the March 1912 agreement between Bulgaria and Serbia. Bulgaria and Greece fall out over the control of Macedonia and the key city of Salonika. Bulgaria seeks to rapidly end the war against Ottoman Turkey to redeploy its army to the west to face Serbia and Greece to assure the gains of the war.
30 May, 1913 - Treaty of London ends the First Balkans War. The Great Powers allow Serbia to maintain control of Albania, and Serbia decides to honor the March 13 1912 agreement with Bulgaria. (Point of Departure)
16 June, 1913 - Greece and Bulgaria declare war over the dispensation of Salonika and Macedonia.
19 June 1913 – 21 June 1913 - At the Battle of Kilkis-Lahanis, the Bulgarian Second Army under General Ivanov, strengthened by an extra 50,000 men from the Serbian border, hold the line against a major Greek assault commanded by King Constantine I. The Greeks suffer heavy casualties and fail to dislodge the Bulgarians from their defensive lines. (OTL: the slightly smaller Bulgarian Army caused heavy casualties on the numerically-superior Greeks, but were driven out of their defenses by superior numbers.)
22 June 1913 - The Bulgarian Second Army advances and drives the Greeks back from Kilkis-Lahanis. The morale of the Greek Army is broken, and the Greeks retreat.
24 June 1913 - King Constantine begs Serbia to enter the war and assist the Greeks; without Serbian support, Constantine predicts a Greek collapse within a month.
25 June 1913 - The Greek Army establishes tentative defensive positions along the Axios River. The Bulgarian Second Army’s advance is halted.
2 July 1913 - 5 July 1913 - The Battle of the Axion. The Bulgarian Second Army crosses the Axion River in an outflanking maneuver against the Greek Army. The Greek Army again retreats, but inflicts casualties on the Bulgarian attackers.
15 July 1913 - Serbia declares war on Bulgaria.
17 July 1913 - 23 July 1913 - The Bulgarian First Army parries a series of Serbian attacks in the Battle of Bregalnica. The Bulgarians fall back on Kalimanci.
24 July 1913 - 10 August 1913 - The Battle of Kalimanci. The Bulgarian First Army holds their positions against and stops the Serbian advance.
5 August 1913 - Romania mobilizes the Army to enforce claims against the Bulgarian-held Dobruja region. (OTL early July.)
6 August 1913 - The Greek Army launches an offensive against the Bulgarian Second Army, which quickly withdraws to the Axion by August 9.
10 August 1913 - Romania declares war on Bulgaria.
12 August 1913 - The Serbian Army outflanks the Bulgarian First Army. The Bulgarian First Army falls back to deny the flank, but faces growing Serbian strength. The Bulgarian Second Army is in danger of being isolated by Serbian outflanking maneuvers, and is ordered to withdraw.
14 August 1913 - The Romanian Army enters the Dobruja without Bulgarian resistance. All available Bulgarian troops are facing the Serbs and Greeks.
15 August 1913 - 17 August 1913 - The Greek Army attacks the rearguard of the Bulgarian Army at Lake Doiran. Two regiments of the Bulgarian rearguard make a sacrificial stand against ten-to-one odds and slow the Greek assault by two days before surrendering to the Greek Army.
20 August 1913 - The Bulgarian Second Army in the southwest is prevented from linking with the Bulgarian First Army in the northwest. The Second Army is trapped by the Greek and Serbian Armies in the Kresna Gorge Pocket.
25 August 1913 - Elements of the Romanian Army enter Varna, which is declared an open city. Larger units push towards central Bulgaria and Sofia to link up with Serbian and Greek forces.
26 August 1913 - 29 August 1913 - The Bulgarian Second Army defends the Pocket of Kresna Gorge against a major Greek advance, driving the Greeks back with heavy casualties. However, the Second Army remains isolated and cannot inform the government in Sofia of this victory.
30 August 1913 - The Bulgarian First Army defends the outskirts of Sofia against Serbian and Romanian troops. Tsar Ferdinand of Bulgaria asks for a ceasefire and terms.
13 September 1913 - The Bulgarians accept the terms of the Treaty of Bucharest, which strip them of Macedonia and Salonika (awarded to Greece), the Western Outlands (awarded to Serbia) and Dobruja (awarded to Romania). The Bulgarian-held city of Edirne is seized by returning Ottoman troops.


Tuesday, November 23rd 2010, 11:14pm

The Great War: 1914

Color Key
Black - This event is as-historical.
Red - This event is ahistorical.
Blue - This event adheres as closely as possible to the historical but is advanced in date.

28 June 1914 - Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
23 July 1914 - Austria-Hungary sends an ultimatum to Serbia. The Serbian response is seen as unsatisfactory.
28 July 1914 - Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia. Russia mobilizes.
31 July 1914 - Germany enjoins Russia to stop mobilizing. Russia says mobilization is against Austria-Hungary only.
1 August 1914 - Germany declares war on France. Germany and the Ottoman Empire sign a secret treaty of alliance. Italy declares neutrality.
2 August 1914 - Germany invades Luxembourg.
4 August 1914 - Germany invades Belgium. Britain and Atlantis protest the German invasion of Belgium, which is guaranteed by treaty. Britain declares war on Germany.
5 August 1914 - The Ottoman Empire closes the Dardanelles. Montenegro declares war on Austria-Hungary. Atlantis declares war on Germany.
6 August 1914 - Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia. Serbia declares war on Germany.
7 August 1914 - BEF arrives in France.
9 August 1914 - Montenegro declares war on Germany.
10 August 1914 - German battlecruiser SMS Goeben reaches Dardanelles.
11 August 1914 - France declares war on Austria-Hungary.
12 August 1914 - Britain declares war on Austria-Hungary.
13 August 1914 - Atlantis declares war on Austria-Hungary.
14 August 1914 - The Atlantean Expeditionary Forces are created. Equipment shortages and lack of trained men prevents its use in the opening months of the war.

14 August - 24 August 1914 - Battle of the Frontiers. Germany defeats BEF and French Army.
16 August - 19 August 1914 - Serbia defeats First Austro-Hungarian Invasion at the Battle of Cer. Serbian Field Marshal Putnik does not permit aggressive counterattacks on the weakened Austro-Hungarian troops. [1]
17 August - 2 September 1914 - Russian forces badly defeated by German Army in the Battle of Tannenberg.
22 August 1914 - Austria-Hungary declares war on Belgium.
23 August 1914 - Japan declares war on Germany.
25 August 1914 - Japan declares war on Austria-Hungary.
27 August - 7 November 1914 - Battle of Tsingtao ends with Japanese victory over German colonial army.
28 August 1914 - British Royal Navy defeats Imperial German Navy in the First Battle of Heligoland Bight.
30 August 1914 - Australia and New Zealand occupy German Samoa and other Pacific colonies.
2 September 1914 - Spurred by reports of German atrocities, Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands agrees to undertake the neutral administration of Belgium. Britain informs the Netherlands that any Dutch fleets sailing out of Dutch waters will be considered a foe. Some Belgian territory remains under German control as late as December 1914, while other areas occupied by the Allies are held until shortly thereafter. (This prevents the historical Race to the Sea.)
7 September - 14 September 1914 - The Russian Army is badly defeated in the Battle of the Masurian Lakes.
29 October 1914 - Goeben / Yavuz bombards Sevastopol.
1 November 1914 - German East Asiatic Squadron under Graf Spee defeats British Royal Navy under Christopher Craddock in the Battle of Coronel. Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
2 November 1914 - Britain initiates naval blockade of Germany.
3 November 1914 - Montenegro declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
3 November - 5 November 1914 - Troops in German East Africa defeat British at the Battle of Tanga.
6 November 1914 - Austria-Hungary captures Belgrade during the Third Austro-Hungarian Invasion.
9 November 1914 - Battle of the Cocos Islands. Australian cruiser Sydney sinks German cruiser Emden.
11 November 1914 - Sultan Mehmed V declares jihad on Allies.
16 November - 15 December 1914 - Serbia defeats Second Austro-Hungarian Invasion in the Battle of Kolubara.
18 November 1914 - Battle of Cape Sarych. Russian predreadnought squadron engages and repels the Yavuz.
8 December 1914 - Battle of the Falkland Islands. Graf Spee’s squadron wiped out by British battlecruisers.
16 December 1914 - Bombardment of Scarbourgh and Hartlepool.
24 December - 26 December 1914 - Unofficial “Christmas Truce” by German and French troops.
29 December 1914 - 2 January 1915 - Russian Army defeats Ottoman Army at the Battle of Sarikamis.

Undated 1914 Events:
- Allies and Central Powers court Bulgarian participation. Bulgaria’s entry into the war on the side of the Central Powers would significantly help shore up lines of communication to the Ottomans and would place the Serbian Army in grave peril of entrapment and distruction. Bulgaria’s entry into the war on the side of the Allies would save the Serbian Army from defeat and would place a strong enemy within striking distance of Constantinople. As the Bulgarian Army is re-arming from the Balkan Wars, Tsar Ferdinand holds to Bulgarian neutrality in an effort to let the winning side emerge.
- Greece, having suffered heavy casualties during the Second Balkan War (even heavier than historical), does not honor the July 1913 Treaty of Alliance and remains neutral during the Three Austro-Hungarian Invasions. Both the Allies and the Central Powers court Greek participation. The Greek leadership is heavily pro-German while most of the people are pro-Allied (and anti-Ottoman).


Tuesday, November 23rd 2010, 11:15pm

The Great War: 1915

2 January - April 20 1915 - Russian Carpathian Offensive.
24 January 1915 - Battle of Dogger Bank.
4 February 1915 - Germans initiate submarine warfare against merchant ships.
19 February 1915 - British and French attack Dardanelles. First Gallipoli Campaign begins.
10 March - 13 March, 1915 - Battles of Neuve Chapelle and Artois. British achieve operational successes but are unable to achieve a strategic breakthrough.
25 April 1915 - British begin the Gallipoli Landings. Italy and the Entente sign the London Pact to bring Italy into the war on the Allied side.
28 April 1915 - First Battle of Krithia. The Allied advance is repelled.
1 May - 3 May 1915 - Battle of Gorlice-Tarnów: the German troops under General Mackensen break through the Russian lines in Galicia. The offensive starts as a small-scale counterattack but results in a major breakdown of Russian forces.
6 May - 8 May 1915 - Allied advance in Gallipoli is thwarted again at the Second Battle of Krithia.
7 May 1915 - British liner Lusitania is sunk by a submarine.
23 May 1915 - Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary as delineated in the London Pact.
4 June 1915 - Allied advance again defeated in the Third Battle of Krithia.
23 June - 7 July 1915 - Italian and Austro-Hungarian troops fight the First Battle of the Isonzo.
27 June 1915 - Austro-Hungarians capture Lviv.
28 June - 5 July 1915 - British defeat Ottomans in the Battle of Gully Ravine.
18 July - 3 August 1915 - Second Battle of the Isonzo.
5 August 1915 - Germans occupy Warsaw.
6 August - 29 August 1915 - Battle of Sari Bair. British make last attempt to seize Gallipoli.
1 September 1915 - Germany suspends unrestricted submarine warfare to keep the US neutral in the aftermath of the Sinking of the Lusitania.
19 September 1915 - The Gorlice–Tarnów Offensive ends with the occupation of Vilnius by German troops.
25 September - 28 September 1915 - British offensive defeated at the Battle of Loos.
6 October 1915 - Bulgaria, Austria-Hungary, and Germany launch the third invasion of Serbia.
8 October 1915 - Serbia asks Greece to honor the July 1913 Treaty of Alliance with a note saying “Remember July 1913”.
14 October 1915 - Bulgaria declares war on Serbia.
14 October - 15 November 1915 - Battle of Ovche Pole. Bulgarian Second Army defeats Serbian second-line troops and cuts the main supply line for the main Serbian Army, rendering the Serbian position untenable. Field Marshal Putnik orders a retreat into Greece.
15 October 1915 - Great Britain declares war on Bulgaria.
16 October 1915 - France declares war on Bulgaria.
17 October 1915 - Atlantis declares war on Bulgaria.
18 October 1915 - Greece announces that it will honor the July 1913 Treaty of Alliance. Greece declares war on Bulgaria.
18 October - 4 November 1915 - Third Battle of the Isonzo.
19 October 1915 - Italy and Russia declare war on Bulgaria.
22 October 1915 - Ottoman Empire declares war on Greece.
27 October 1915 - French and Atlantean forces land at Salonika.
10 November - 2 December 1915 - Fourth Battle of the Isonzo.
22 November - 25 November 1915 - Turks repel British assault in Battle of Ctesiphon (in Iraq).
27 November 1915 - Serbian Army collapses and begins retreat into Greek Macedonia. French troops in Salonika and Greek Army helps to cover their retreat and prepares “the Macedonian Reduit” to serve as a stronghold against the Central Powers advance.
19 December 1915 - Douglas Haig becomes commander of the BEF.


Tuesday, November 23rd 2010, 11:15pm

The Great War: 1916

8 January - 16 January 1916 - Austria-Hungary launches an offensive against Montenegro, which surrenders on January 25. The valiant defense of the Montenegrin Army covers the retreat of the Serbian Army and prevents its annihilation.
9 January 1916 - First Gallipoli Campaign ends with Allied withdrawal. Atlantis is already planning a second campaign.
24 January 1916 - Reinhard Scheer is appointed commander of the High Seas Fleet.
27 January 1916 - Britain introduces conscription.
21 February 1916 - The Battle of Verdun begins.
25 February 1916 - Bulgaria appeals for German and Austro-Hungarian aid to invade Greek Macedonia and wipe out the remnants of the Serbian Army sheltering there, along with their Greek and French allies. The Bulgarians can field 300,000 men against 200,000 Serbs, 80,000 Greeks (in Macedonia) and 60,000 French. Bulgaria requests 120,000 German and Austro-Hungarian troops to join them. The Germans decline to support the requested Bulgarian offensive and it is cancelled. [2]
28 February 1916 - Atlantean and Greek troops land at Akcay on the Asian side of Turkey. Atlantean Dardanelles Campaign begins. Atlantis will disembark over fifteen divisions, called the Army of Asia, into Akcay by the end of March while the Greeks disembark one division. Atlantean general Damon Thule-Saulius takes command of the Army of Asia.
1 March 1916 - Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare.
1 March - 15 March 1916 - Fifth Battle of the Isonzo.
8 March 1916 - British fail to break the Siege of Kut following the Battle of Dujaila.
15 March - 18 March 1916 - Atlantean troops defeat small Ottoman contingent in the Battle of Balikesir.
16 March 1916 - General Edmund Allenby is relieved of duty by Field Marshal Haig and appointed to command British troops in the Middle East (Egyptian Expeditionary Forces).
18 March 1916 - Russians launch the Lake Naroch Offensive to relieve pressure on French at Verdun.
2 April - 8 April 1916 - The Battle of Bursa-Inegol. The Atlantean Expeditionary Force is repelled at the Battle of Bursa but outflanks Ottoman defenders at Inegol, threatening the Turks with entrapment. Ottoman troops are sealifted from Mudanya to Izmit. Ottoman troops are being transported by boat across the Dardanelles to fight on the Asian side.
10 April - 14 April 1916 - Atlanteans feint a landing at Yayla on the European side of Turkey. Ottoman defenses are thrown into disarray attempting to react to the feint.
14 April 1916 - Atlanteans launch the April Offensive to capture Izmit and cut Ottoman Empire in half. Forces in the Asia Minor Theater now number 200,000 Atlanteans and 15,000 Greeks to 170,000 Turks.
16 April 1916 - Greek troops make amphibious landing at Sefirihisar to capture Ismir (Smyrna).
24 April - 30 April 1916 - Easter Rising in Ireland.
29 April 1916 - British forces surrender at Kut, ending a five-month siege.
1 May 1916 - Atlantean forces stall out in the April Offensive just two kilometers south and east of Izmit.
10 May 1916 - Germany suspends unrestricted submarine warfare (second time).
10 May - 16 May 1916 - The Atlanteans make second amphibious landing at Gallipoli. With Ottoman troops mostly withdrawn to fight on the Asian side, the new invasion force quickly occupies much of the former British lines.
20 May 1916 - Atlantean troops capture Gelibolu at the neck of the Gallipoli Peninsula.
21 May 1916 - The Forcing of the Dardanelles. Eight Atlantean pre-dreadnoughts and the dreadnoughts Atlas, Gadeirus, Poseidon, and Agamemnon - supported by minesweepers and support ships - break into the Sea of Marmara. Yavuz briefly engages the two leading Atlantean pre-dreadnoughts but flees when Atlantean dreadnoughts appear. The Atlanteans do not pursue, instead protecting troop movements and hindering Ottoman transportation efforts.
23 May - 31 May 1916 - Atlanteans launch Second Izmit Offensive.
25 May 1916 - Allenby and the Egyptian Expeditionary Forces launch an attack into the Sinai Peninsula, forcing the Ottoman garrisons to surrender.
31 May 1916 - Battle of Jutland. British and German fleets clash in the largest naval battle of the war. Izmit falls to Atlantean troops, cutting off Constantinople from the rest of the Ottoman Empire.
31 May - 25 July 1916 - Seige of Constantinople. Ottoman defense of Constantinople against Atlantean troops. Sultan Mehmed flees Constantinople, narrowly avoiding capture by Russian warships, and lands in Samsun.
4 June 1916 - Russia launches the Brusilov Offensive.
5 June 1916 - The Arab Revolt begins in Hedjaz. The HMS Hampshire is sunk off the Orkneys and Lord Kirchner is killed.
10 June 1916 - Yavuz is scuttled in shallow waters off Golcuk rather than be captured by Atlantean troops or fight the Atlantean dreadnoughts in the Sea of Marmara. Ottoman Naval Base at Golcuk is captured.
15 June 1916 - The Ottomans request 200,000 soldiers from Bulgaria to prevent the encirclement of Constantinople; the Bulgarians are neither able nor willing to send half of their army to fight for the Turks. Ottoman merchant ships are scuttled in a line across the straits in an attempt to bar the passage as long as possible.
1 July 1916 - The Battle of the Somme begins.
2 July - 25 July 1916 - The Russian Army defeats the Ottomans in the Battle of Erzincan.
6 July 1916 - Arab rebels under Lawrence of Arabia capture Ottoman port of Aqaba.
14 July 1916 - Battles for Longueval and Delville Wood (Battle of the Somme). Battle of Bazentin Ridge (Battle of the Somme).
15 July 1916 - Armenia declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire. It is recognized shortly afterwards by Atlantis, Russia, and the UK.
23 July – 7 August 1916 - Battle of Pozières (Battle of the Somme).
25 July 1916 - Ottoman troops in Constantinople surrender unconditionally to Atlantean troops. Atlanteans take 145,000 prisoners and estimate 250,000 Ottoman killed and wounded during the Siege of Constantinople. Sultan Mehmed, placing his new capital in Samsun, refuses to seek peace.
31 July 1916 - Bulgarian crown prince Boris secretly begins negotiations with Atlantean commanders in occupied Constantinople, indicating Bulgaria’s unwillingness to continue the war.
2 August 1916 - Ottoman forces launch an attack to retake Izmir (Smyrna) and Constantinople. It fails miserably.
3 August - 17 August 1916 - The Sixth Battle of the Isonzo.
4 August 1916 - British capture Baghdad.
August 5 1916 - Ottoman forces at the fortress of Edirne surrender to Atlantean Expeditionary Force. No further Ottoman resistance remains in Europe.
August 6 1916 - The Romanian government approaches the Entente about joining the war. Their main condition is that Bulgaria be knocked out of the war by the Atlanteans. The Bulgarians under Prince Boris are simultaneously secretly negotiating with the Entente via Atlantis, requesting to leave the war.
7 August 1916 - Atlantean engineers finish clearing a path through the Constantinople blockships.
8 August 1916 - Atlantean battlecruiser Evamon and Azeas enter the Black Sea via the re-opened Dardanelles. A cursory “demonstration” is performed off the Bulgarian coast before the ships sail to Sevastopol with a convoy, where they are enthusiastically welcomed by the Russian populace on 9 August. Despite Atlantean success in re-opening the Dardanelles, the Russian situation remains perilous.
9 August 1916 - The Italians capture Gorizia.
10 August 1916 - Tsar Ferdinand of Bulgaria abdicates in favor of his son, who becomes Tsar Boris III. The Bulgarian First Army is secretly redeployed away from the Macedonian Front towards the northwest.
14 August 1916 - Tsar Boris signs official cease-fire (“Constantinople Agreement”) with Entente. Under the terms of this agreement, Bulgaria will return to the status quo antebellum status laid down by the 1913 Treaty of Bucharest, but will not be punished for participation in the Great War if Bulgaria remains an active combatant up to an Entente victory. Bulgaria permits the passage of the Atlantean Expeditionary Force into western Bulgaria and requests supplies.
21 August 1916 - Bulgaria declares war on Austria-Hungary and Germany. German military advisors in Bulgaria are interned.
25 August - 13 September 1916 - The Mackensen Offensive. Mackensen leads German and Austro-Hungarian troops in a spoiling attack against the Bulgarian Army in an attempt to destroy it before the Atlantean Expeditionary Force arrives.
27 August 1916 - Romania joins the Entente and declares war on Austria-Hungary and Germany. Italy declares war on Germany.
28 August 1916 - The Mackensen Offensive is broadened to include Romania. The Bulgarian First Army is defeated by Mackensen at the Battle of Cuprija and falls back on Nis.
3 September - 6 September 1916 - Battle of Guillemont (Battle of the Somme).
6 September 1916 - Germany and Austria-Hungary create a united military command. [3]
6 September - 12 September 1916 - Romanians defeated in the Battle of Arad by Austro-Hungarian and German forces participating in the Mackensen Offensive.
8 September - 13 September 1916 - The Bulgarian Army halts the Mackensen Offensive in the Battle of Nis. Atlantean Expeditionary Forces begin reinforcing them. The Atlanteans cover their advance with the largest aerial campaign in the Balkan Campaign up to that point, with 800 aircraft participating. The battle reaches a peak on September 10-11.
9 September 1916 - Battle of Ginchy (Battle of the Somme).
10 September 1916 - The Serbian, French, British, and Greek armies under Sarrail attack into southern Serbia and Montenegro. Their force is estimated at 4 French divisions, 4 British divisions, 9 Serbian divisions [4], and 3 Greek divisions. The Bulgarians field 15 divisions, the Atlanteans 25 divisions [5], and the Romanians 15 divisions.
13 Sepember 1916 - Mackensen Offensive ends with the relief of Bulgarian forces at Nis by the Atlanteans.
14 Sepember 1916 - The Entente’s Balkans forces are reorganized. French general Sarrail takes command of the French, Greek, and Serbian forces in the Armee d’Orient (West), while Atlantean Field Marshal Damon Thule-Saulius takes command of Atlantean, Bulgarian, and Romanian forces in the Armee d’Orient (East).
14 September - 17 September 1916 - Seventh Battle of the Isonzo.
15 September 1916 - Battle of Flers-Courcelette. First use of the tank in warfare.
18 September 1916 - The Romanian Army opens the Transylvania Offensive.
18 September - 21 November 1916 - The Romanian Army pushes Austro-Hungarian forces out of Transylvania during the Transylvania Offensive.
20 September 1916 - Brusilov Offensive ends.
25 September 1916 - Battle of Morval (Battle of the Somme).
26 September - 28 September 1916 - Battle of Thiepval Ridge (Battle of the Somme).
1 October - 5 November 1916 - Battle of Le Transloy (Battle of the Somme).
9 October - 12 October 1916 - Eighth Battle of the Isonzo.
24 October 1916 - The French recapture Fort Douaumont near Verdun.
1 November - 4 November 1916 - Ninth Battle of the Isonzo.
13 November - 15 November 1916 - Battle of the Ancre (Battle of the Somme).
18 November 1916 - The end of the Battle of the Somme.
21 November 1916 - Francis Joseph I, Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, dies and is succeeded by Charles I. Urban legend in Romania claims that he suffered a breakdown as a result of the conclusion of the Romanian Transylvania Campaign, which ended this day.
5 December 1916 - Prime Minister Henry Asquith resigns and is succeeded by David Lloyd George.
6 December 1916 - 3 January 1917 - The Second Mackensen Campaign. German and Austro-Hungarian armies under Mackensen launch a major counterattack into Transylvania with the goal of entrapping and destroying the Romanian Army. The offensive breaks down into intense defensive mountain warfare.
8 December - 26 December 1916 - Battle of Jerusalem. Allenby enters Jerusalem on the 11th, walking rather than riding to display his respect for the holy city.
13 December 1916 - Robert Nivelle replaces Joseph Joffre as Commander-in-Chief of the French Army.
18 December 1916 - 14 January 1917 - The first stage of the Great Serbian Offensive. The Atlantean and Bulgarian troops under Thule-Saulius attack northwest down the Morava River Valley to relieve pressure on the Romanian Army in Transylvania. The French, Greek, and Serbian armies under Sarrail attack through Montenegro, with the French taking Sarajevo on 14 January.


Tuesday, November 23rd 2010, 11:16pm

The Great War: 1917

14 January 1917 - Sarrail enters Sarajevo.
16 January 1917 - The German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmermann debates sending a telegram to his ambassador in Mexico, instructing him to propose the Mexican government an alliance against the United States. After some discussion, the German government rejects the proposition and does not send the note.[6]
1 February 1917 - Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare.
18 February - 20 April 1916 - Entente offensive through Serbia (Second Stage of the Great Serbian Offensive. All nine divisions of the Serbian Army are redeployed in the line in order to give them the prestige of retaking Belgrade, which falls on 19 March.
23 February - 5 April 1917 - The Germans withdraw to the Hindenburg Line.
1 March 1917 - France adopts the FT-17 tank. It is shortly afterwards adopted by the Atlanteans. Immediate attempts are made to mass-produce the tank.
11 March 1917 - Mikhail Rodzianko advises Tsar Nicholas II of the grave situation of the Russian government, advising him that “Delay is tantamount to death.” Tsar Nicholas calls it “a load of rubbish”.
15 March 1917 - Tsar Nicholas II abdicates as Emperor of Russia during the height of the February Revolt.
19 March 1917 - The Austro-Hungarians surrender Belgrade to the Serbian Army.
25 March 1917 - The Russian Provisional Government advises the other Entente allies that it plans to seek a ceasefire with Germany and Austria-Hungary in order to stabilize the internal situation in Russia and prevent revolution.
26 March 1917 - All of Serbia south of the Danube and the Sava Rivers is under Entente control. The Serbian Army controls a small angle of land north of the Sava and south of the Danube which includes Belgrade.
27 March 1917 - The Entente Allies press for Russia to remain in the war, remaining on the defensive only, in order to prevent the release of German troops against the Western and Southern fronts. The Russian government places this under consideration but shortly decides to ask for a cease-fire.
1 April 1917 - Germany and Austria-Hungary react favorably to Russian ceasefire overtures. The Central Powers’ situation on the Eastern Front is strong, but the troops and supplies are badly needed to fight in the Hungarian Front and the Western Front.
2 April 1917 - Thule-Saulius crosses the Danube. The Atlantean Expeditionary Force, with some Bulgarian and Greek troops, launches a nineteen mile long assault across the Danube stretching from Banatska Palanka to Kovin.
3 April - 28 April 1917 - Russia and Germany negotiate cease-fire terms. Both parties want a rapid resolution but are unable to agree immediately on the terms. The ceasefire agreement is signed on 25 April but amended again 28 April, for the ceasefire to start May 1
9 April - 12 April 1917 - The Canadians win the Battle of Vimy Ridge. [7]
16 April - 9 May 1917 - The Second Battle of the Aisne (aka Nivelle Offensive) ends in disaster for both the French army and its commander Robert Nivelle. Nivelle’s poor performance is often attributed to his disinterest in accepting the FT-17 tank, arriving in increasing numbers.
20 April 1917 - The Great Serbian Campaign concludes with the total liberation of pre-war Serbia.
25 April 1917 - Third Mackensen Offensive, aka “The Spring Offensive”. Troops from the Russian front are added to the German and Austro-Hungarian forces as they become available. The Spring Offensive falls heaviest on the Romanian Army at the Battle of Arad and the Atlantean Expeditionary Forces at the Battle of Subotica.
25 April - 15 May 1917 - Field Marshal Thule-Saulius and Field Marshal Mackensen fight the seesaw Battle of Subotica. The initial Central Powers advance breaks Atlantean defensive lines and captures Subotica on 25 April, but an Atlantean counterattack on 28 April recovers all lost territory. Mackensen recaptures Subotica again on 2 May and the town changes hands four more times by 15 May. The Central Powers are left in control of Subotica on 15 May but have taken heavy casualties.
28 April 1917 - The regions of Latvia and Lithuania, as well as all Russian claims in Poland, are ceded to the German Empire. Azerbaijan is ceded to the Ottoman Empire.
29 April - 20 May 1917 - Units of the French Army mutiny.
1 May 1917 - Ceasefire begins between Russia and Central Powers. The Germans and Austro-Hungarians have been withdrawing troops since 26 April and redeploying them to reinforce the Spring Offensive.
12 May - 6 June 1917 - Tenth Battle of the Isonzo.
5 May 1917 - Due to the state of the Ottoman government and army, Azerbaijan assume a state of virtual de-facto independence.
20 May 1917 - French and Serbian forces under Sarrail begins the Siege of Zagreb.
22 May 1917 - Thule-Saulius launches Operation Iron Wolf - the Invasion of Austria-Hungary. It will last until July 1917.
22 May - 25 May 1917 - The Bulgarians cross to the right bank of the Danube in an outflanking moment ordered by Thule-Saulius. Atlantean troops launch an offensive which captures Subotica for the final time, and captures Szeged on 25 May.
23 May 1917 - Battle of Mount Hermada in the Karst.
31 May - 20 June 1917 - The Battle of the Pannonian Plains. Entente forces enter Hungary with the Bulgarians on the West, Atlanteans in the Center, and Romanians on the East. Mackensen launches local spoiling attacks but is never able to regain strategic initiative. The Atlantean Army deploys virtually their entire production run to date of FT-17 tanks, the first armoured warfare on the Southern Front.
7 June - 8 June 1917 - The British recapture Messines Ridge.
10 June - 29 June 1917 - Battle of Mount Ortigara.
20 June 1917 - Romanian Army captures Miskolc and finally stalls out.
20 June - 10 July 1917 - Battle of Lake Balaton. Bulgarian First Army attacks the Austro-Hungarian army southwest of Lake Balaton, achieving a breakthrough on 10 July and driving around the lake.
1 July - 10 July 1917 - Battle of Budapest. Atlantean Expeditionary Force storms Budapest, which capitulates July 10th.
8 July - 15 July 1917 - Austro-Hungarian Army mutinies and collapses. 135,000 troops surrender to Entente between Lake Balaton and Budapest. The Entente converges on Vienna.
19 July 1917 - Zagreb surrenders to the French forces under Sarrail. The Siege of Zagreb ends.
20 July 1917 - Austria-Hungary asks the Entente for surrender; they try to request terms similar to Bulgaria’s agreement with the Entente in 1916, but the Entente demands unconditional surrender, which Austria-Hungary rejects.
1 August - 4 August 1917 - The Battle of Vienna / The Battle of the Nations. The Entente assaults Vienna. Entente forces include contingents from Atlantis, Australia, Bulgaria, France, Great Britain, Greece, Italy, Montenegro, Romania, the Russian Foreign Legion (French), and Serbia; opposing them are troops of Austria-Hungary and Germany. On 4 August, the Austro-Hungarian government orders their troops to cease resistance. German troops fall back in the chaos and the Entente pursues them north into Czechoslovakia and west towards Linz.
3 August 1917 - British and French troops on the Western Front, supported by the Atlantean Expeditionary Forces in France, launch the Hundred Days Offensive against Germany. The French Army, re-equipped with nearly a thousand mass-produced FT-17 tanks, conduct one of the fastest advances of the Western Front.[8]
6 August 1917 - Austria-Hungary unconditionally surrenders to the Entente.
8 August 1917 - Italy advances into Austro-Hungarian territory claimed under the London Pact.
10 August - 19 August 1917 - Battle of Cambrai. British forces on the Western Front advance but are bogged down by German resistance.
11 August 1917 - Austria-Hungary signs armistice with Italy.
18 August - 19 September 1917 - Battle of Salzburg. Atlantean Army halted by fierce German resistance short of the German border.
19 September - 21 September 1917 - Battle of Megiddo. British and allies under Allenby crush last Ottoman army outside of Asia Minor.
28 August - 17 September 1917 - Battle of the Hindenburg Line (Hundred Days Offensive).
8 September 1917 - Second Battle of Heligoland Bight.
12 September 1917 - Battle of Havrincourt, a phase of the Hundred Days Offensive.
17 September - 11 November 1917 - Meuse-Argonne Offensive (Hundred Days Offensive).
19 September 1917 - Salzburg falls to the Entente after massive battle of attrition.
1 October 1917 - British enter Damascus.
13 October - 11 November 1917 - Battle of Munich. The Entente surrounds and captures Munich, which capitulates 11 November.
28 October 1917 - Karlsruhe is declared an open city.
29 October 1917 - The German High Seas Fleet mutinies.
9 November 1917 - Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates. Germany seeks armistice.
11 November 1917 - Armistice begins. Fighting ceases at the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month. The Hundred Days Offensive ends just short of Frankfurt, Koln, and Stuttgart. The southern front forces end on a line between Liechtenstein and Prague.
12 November 1917 - Austria declared an independent republic.
14 November 1917 - Czechoslovakia declared an independent republic. General von Lettow-Vorbeck, commander of the German Army of East Africa, agrees to a cease-fire.
15 November 1917 - Poland declares itself an independent republic (from Germany). Ottoman Empire surrenders.
21 November 1917 - High Seas Fleet surrendered to the United Kingdom and interned at Scapa Flow.
23 November 1917 - General von Lettow-Vorbeck surrenders the undefeated German Army of East Africa.
1 December 1917 - Yugoslav independence and unification proclaimed.


Tuesday, November 23rd 2010, 11:16pm

The Great War: 1918

18 January 1918 - Treaty of Versailles signed.
19 January 1918 - The independence of Latvia, Lithuania and Poland is recognized. Azerbaijan and Armenia claim independence.
25 January 1918 - Proposal for the League of Nations accepted.
21 June 1918 - The High Seas Fleet scuttles itself in Scapa Flow.
8 July 1918 - Germany ratifies the Versailles Treaty.
21 July 1918 - Britain ratifies the Versailles Treaty, followed by the other Entente powers.


Tuesday, November 23rd 2010, 11:16pm

[1] Historical result. The Battle of Cer was a major Austro-Hungarian defeat, but Serbia’s Field Marshal Putnik was wary of overambitious offensive maneuvers. Had he counterattacked, the disspirited and disorganized Austro-Hungarian assault would almost certainly have suffered significantly more casualties than historical.
[2] The Bulgarians constantly pushed for German assistance to terminate the Balkan Theatre of operations. The Germans turned down most Bulgarian requests as they benefited from bleeding off Allied troop strength into this theatre (as opposed to facing them on the Western Front). Neither the Bulgarians nor the Austro-Hungarians were capable of initiating operations without German support in the form of supplies or divisions.
[3] Historically, all four of the Central Powers joined to create this centralized unified command. But with the Ottoman Empire in disarray and isolated from the rest, and Bulgaria turning coats, only Austria-Hungary and Germany are left.
[4] In OTL the Serbians fielded only six at the start of 1917. Here, the earlier Greek declaration of war, and their covering movement versus Bulgaria in 1915, increases the forces saved from destruction in the Great Retreat.
[5] Historically Gallipoli used about fifteen Allied divisions. For the WWTL Macedonian Front, more French and British forces remain on the Western Front, while Atlantis sends the lion’s share of its forces into the Balkans (estimated at 50% or more of the Atlantean Army, or 500,000+ men). While Atlantean troops are present on the Western Front, Atlantis spends most of their efforts on the Balkans Campaign. Since Atlantis has a larger manpower base than France or Britain, the quantity of troops presented is quite probably low.
[6] Per discussions with Canis, the USA leans very heavily towards entering the war, but there is no Zimmerman note to provide them with a casus belli. Wilson lives up to his campaign promises and does indeed “Keep US out of war”.
[7] There’s a problem with this, unfortunately, as well as half the fights in the war (Somme, Ypres, etc). With the German route through Belgium blocked by the Dutch, there’s not much of a way for the Germans to make offensives in this sector. The only acceptable way to maintain most of the historical campaigns is if the Germans continue pushing troops through Belgium even while the Dutch garrison the country.
[8] Only 84 FT-17s were historically produced by the end of 1917, but here receive more resources.


Tuesday, November 23rd 2010, 11:17pm

Unresolved Questions

Only one question remains unresolved, to the best of our knowledge.

Unresolved Questions:
1. Nordmark was alleged to have participated in the Great War as one of the Entente members. However, it is not clear (A) if they actually did enter the war (B) when they entered the war (C) what their cause for going to war with Germany was (D) what Nordmark did during the war (E) if Nordmark gained from the war and finally (F) why Germany so swiftly concluded treaties and alliances with Nordmark during the early 1930s.


Tuesday, November 23rd 2010, 11:18pm

I shall endevor to adjust my Latvian WoI history to fit in with the timeline.

Clarification request: When it says that Latvia's independence is recognized, pro-German militas fighting to try and defend that government against communists, and then later try and overthrow said government, can be present, correct?

This post has been edited 1 times, last edit by "TexanCowboy" (Nov 23rd 2010, 11:21pm)


Tuesday, November 23rd 2010, 11:46pm

Just one question...

I had been lead to believe by Lord Arpad (previous Iberian player) that Iberia was involved in the Great War, but I see no sign of it in your history.

Denmark was neutral, so no issues there.


Tuesday, November 23rd 2010, 11:56pm


Originally posted by Commodore Green
I had been lead to believe by Lord Arpad (previous Iberian player) that Iberia was involved in the Great War, but I see no sign of it in your history.

I suppose it's possible; Portugal historically joined the war as part of the Entente, on the basis of their 1400s treaty with England. I've not heard any comments during my time here that so much as hinted of Iberian participation, however; therefore we all presumed when working on the timeline that Iberia remained neutral.

Do you wish for Iberia to be accorded a role in the Great War?


Originally posted by TexanCowboy
Clarification request: When it says that Latvia's independence is recognized, pro-German militas fighting to try and defend that government against communists, and then later try and overthrow said government, can be present, correct?

Uncertain. There is no Soviet Union, and no Russian Civil War to provide the spark to a communist revolution in Latvia. Per my understanding with AdmK, Lithuania was occupied by the Germans during the peace treaty, and Latvia was handed over as part of the treaty, and both countries then explicitly received their independence as part of Versailles.


Wednesday, November 24th 2010, 12:19am

Great Work! You're also forgetting the SAE participation in the African Front.


Wednesday, November 24th 2010, 12:24am

I had returning Latvian troops, inspired by the writings of Karl Marx, revolting independently of any Russian involvement...


Wednesday, November 24th 2010, 12:25am


Originally posted by perdedor99
Great Work! You're also forgetting the SAE participation in the African Front.

I did not forget it. After talking with Hoo, I understood that the SAE did not participate in the Great War.


Wednesday, November 24th 2010, 12:26am


Originally posted by Brockpaine


Originally posted by perdedor99
Great Work! You're also forgetting the SAE participation in the African Front.

I did not forget it. After talking with Hoo, I understood that the SAE did not participate in the Great War.

But how you explain that Tanzania and Kamerun are SAE territory?


Wednesday, November 24th 2010, 12:27am


Originally posted by TexanCowboy
I had returning Latvian troops, inspired by the writings of Karl Marx, revolting independently of any Russian involvement...

Perhaps Germany captured Lithuania and Latvia in a little more effective Eastern Front. That could explain why Russia hold on to Estonia but not to Latvia and Lithuania.


Wednesday, November 24th 2010, 12:30am

I presume original acquisition by SAE, not war conquests. (Well, not Great War conquests.) It's also possible they were assigned to the SAE post-war for administration as a LON mandate, or purchased from Germany, or something. I'd suggest taking that up with Hoo if you want any more details; I can't answer for him.


Originally posted by perdedor99


Originally posted by TexanCowboy
I had returning Latvian troops, inspired by the writings of Karl Marx, revolting independently of any Russian involvement...

Perhaps Germany captured Lithuania and Latvia in a little more effective Eastern Front. That could explain why Russia hold on to Estonia but not to Latvia and Lithuania.

Per AdmK:


Lithuania was behind German lines in the Spring of 1917, and the Germans were laying siege to Riga in Latvia. Russia gave up Riga and the rest of Latvia to get peace quick. Therefore I saw Lithuania and Lavvia getting independence at Versailles.


Wednesday, November 24th 2010, 12:32am

I just need a background to explain why Latvia was in the shape it was after WWI. It wasn't really devestated by the war, the real heavy hits to it came because of that WoI...otherwise, there would be Sikorsky producing bombers in Riga. Now, I don't mind that happening, but.. ;)


Wednesday, November 24th 2010, 12:58am

I think it's rather unlikely that Sikorsky would be producing bombers in Riga regardless of the way the wars occurred.